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Lecture 8

PHI 1101 Lecture 8: PHI1100 Holly's notes missed lecture's .docx

Course Code
PHI 1101
Iva Apostolova

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Reconstructing Arguments
- Always try to identify the conclusion. The conclusion is what makes set of statements an
argument. No conclusion, no argument!
Ex. [C] Pet psychics can diagnose a dog’s heartburn 100% of the time. [P1] In the
past 50 years, in hundreds of scientific tests, pet psychics were able to correctly
diagnose heartburn in dogs 100% of the time. [P2] Scientists have confirmed the
existence of energy waves that can carry info about the health of animals.
Missing Premises and Conclusions [MP1], [MP2], [MC]
Ex. The Sopranos is the greatest series in TV history
[MP1] All the TV critiques are raving about the TV series The Sopranos. [MP2] I have
watched all other and compared them with The Sopranos, and I have found that The
Sopranos outshines the others. [C] The Sopranos is the greatest show in television
- When a statement or a passage is explaining why something is the case, we’re dealing
with an explanation, NOT an argument
- An argument gives reasons for accepting a claim while explanations don’t
- With arguments , there is an intent to convince while the explanations this intent is
Ex. I don’t love you anymore because you always make fun of me.
Ex. Since you stayed on the beach all day, your nose is peeling in that ugly way.
Ex. We’re sitting in the dark because you forgot to pay the electric bill.
- We’re not arguing anything (giving evidence, or trying to convince anyone that
something is the case), we’re just explaining/ describing the cause
Compare: “People have respect for life because they adhere to certain ethical
standards” vs. “People should have respect for life because their own ethical
standards endorse it”
Simple, T, V, and Complex Arguments
Simple Arguments
- have only one premise and one conclusion
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