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Lecture 13

PHI 1101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Loaded Question, Irving Copi, Ad Hominem

Course Code
PHI 1101
Sardar Hosseini

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Chapter 8
A fallacy is a form of argument that should not
convince anyone but which many people
nevertheless find convincing.
Or, A fallacy is a bad argument that tends to
persuade us even though it is faulty.
Fallacies are arguments that tend to
persuade but should not persuade”.
a form of argument that seems to be correct but
which proves, upon examination, not to be so.
(Irving Copi)
Not all invalid and unsound arguments are
Some of these fallacies are so common that
they have been given their own names.
Here is a road map of the fallacies discussed
in our text:
Names of Fallacies I
Fallacies of Relevance:
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- Appeal to ignorance
- Appeal to inappropriate authority
- Appeal to general beliefs (Ad populum)
- Appeal to popular attitudes and emotions
- Gamblers fallacy
- Equivocation
Fallacies of Inadequate Evidence:
- Post Hoc (False Cause)
- Hasty Generalization
Fallacies of illegitimate assumption:
- False dilemma
- Loaded question
- Begging the question
- Slippery slope
Name of Fallacies II
Fallacies of criticism and response:
-ad hominem
-tu quoque
-Straw man
-Loaded language
-Definitional dodge
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