Reason universal (applies to everyone) objective (not subjective, applies to all) timeless utopian (without place) consistent (e. g. , math 2+2 is always =4) Immanuel kant (1724-1804) liked rational thought (e. g. math) Kant because there would then be no grounds for lying human beings are distinctly rational you must act rationally if you are a human being problem what about non-rational beings? (e. g. infants, handicapped in some way) Feminist thoughts and the ethics of care: more emphasis on personal relations relationships and continuity of engagements with others is an important basis. Diagram: two extreme of male and female archetypes. Women moving more into male realm; moderation is the happy mean; women seen as left-sided; men seen as objective, rational; prejudice still exists Virtue theory: personal ethics; respond to situation as needed; character is tuned to the world around you; asking us to develop a character; principle of moderation. Video: distributive justice justice demands redistribution; on a world level.