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Lecture 13

PHI1101 Lecture 3: Lecture 13-PHI1101

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Sardar Hosseini

Lecture 13-Chapter 5 Notes PHI1101 Common Types of Deductive Arguments 1. Argument based on Mathematics: Ex. Mark has twice as many cats as Susan. Susan has 3 cats; therefore, Mark has 6 cats. 2. Argument from Definition: Truth of conclusion is guaranteed by definition Ex. Harold is Matilda’s son. Therefore, Matilda is Harold’s son. Or: Jackson is a liar; therefore, he doesn’t tell the truth. 3. Sentential (Proposition Deductive Arguments: MP, MT, HS, DS, CD, Conj, Simp, Add. 4. Categorical Syllogism: Syllogism (two premised argument) with each statement starting with “all”, “some”, “none”, or “every” (Ch. 5) Categorical Statements - In a categorical reasoning, the statements, or claims, of interests are categorical statements - Categorical statement make simple assertions about categories, or classes, of things. Ex. All cows are herbivores. No gardeners are plumbers. Some business people are cheaters. Some business people are not moral. - A categorical syllogism consists of three parts: Major premise. Minor premise. Conclusion. How to know which is major/minor. Any premise that has the predicate of the conclusion is the major premise. “Greeks is the subject and it is repeated in the second premise, so it is the minor premise.” Four Standard Forms (Pure Forms) - Four standard forms of categorical statements: 1) All business people are cheaters. 2) No business people are cheaters 3) Some bu
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