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Lecture 2

PHI1101 Lecture 3: Lecture 2-PHI1101

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Sardar Hosseini

PHI1101 Chapter 1, Lecture 2 “Reason and Critical thinking, an introduction to logic” Recognizing Arguments - “Human being is a rationale animal’ -Aristotle - “I think, therefore, I am” -Descartes - The ability to reasoner to think is the most fundamental characteristics of human beings - Animals may exhibit a lower capacity to think, but they capacity to reason remains a central feature - They may have a lower capacity to think, or reason, BUT the capacity to reason remains as a central feature - Certain conscious human activity involves reason (Solving problems, making decisions, predicting elections, making discoveries, interpreting works of arts, preparing cars, etc.) Distinction between mere Thinking and Reasoning - Reasoning is the active and systematic process of analyzing and evaluating, and formulating or beliefs, or statements, by rational standards - Reasoning is a conscious activity, but mere consciousness or mere thinking is not reasoning - For example, watching TV, or listening to others, or taking note of what is going around us, or experiencing feelings are conscious activities, but they are not reasoning Critical Reasoning - Some misconceptions about CR… it’s too logical, mechanical, abstract, linear, inhuman, whereas it should be spontaneous, creative, free, and easy - How can we do it better? - As an expert: presenting your ideas in an ordered manner. As a non-expert: we can mitigate our vulnerability as non-expert in a society increasingly ruled by experts Tool-Box of Critical Thinking - Statement (claim or proposition) - Premise (Claim or statement that gives evidence or proof for conclusion) - Conclusion - Argument (Premise + Conclusion = Argument) - Statement: a claim that something is or is not the case - Ex. The water looks polluted!” - “Maurice smells bad” - “Taxes are too high” - “The earth is flat” - “Neither of us wants ice-cream” What is an Argument? - We express our reasoning through Arguments (Argument sare the instruments we use in rational persuasion, or reasonings) - Basically, an argument is a set of claims (statements) in which some of them (the premises) are intended to support another of them (the conclusion) - So, a conclusion is a claim that is supported by the Premise(s) - And a premise is a claim that supports the conclusion. Or, a claim puts forth as a reason for a conclusion - Each time we move from a premise or a set of premises to a conclusion, we infer or make
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