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Fallacies- Philosophy.docx

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Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PHI1101
Professor
Mark Brown

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Fallacies Bad argument 18 fallacies Fallacies seem plausible, but are logically powerless 1) Appeal to ignorance: arguing that a lack of evidence proves something. No one  has shown that ghosts are not real, therefore ghosts are real 2) Appeal to inappropriate authority­ person is an expert in one field doesn’t  necessarily mean they’re an expert in another­ My laywer says that the new  treatment for MS is no good, he must be right 3) Fallacy of appeal to general belief, Argues that a claim must be true because a  good number of people believe it, as far as the truth of a claim is concerned, what  many people believe is irrelevant.­ ex 4) Appeal to popular attitudes and emotions­ Peer pressure, pressure from peers  to believe or do things the group does­ all your friend think your views are  ridiculous, that should be proof enough that you’re wrong.  ALSO a belief that  “our group is the best” ex­ religion, political party, generation, social class,  country – Ex­ we cant let these people move into our neighborhood, they’re not  like us. 5) The gamblers fallacy­ thinking that previous events influence the probabilities in  the random event at hand. 6) The false cause fallacy (Post hoc): Confusing cause with temporal order­ The  rooster crowed, and then the sun came up. So the rooster made the sun come up...  just cause one thing comes before another, doesn’t mean it’s the cause 7) Fallacy of hasty generalizations: when conclusion is made about a whole group  based on an inadequate sample of the group: Ex­you shouldn’t buy a dell  computer, I bought one last year and it has given me nothing but trouble.  When  results from group of people, can be steryotyping 8) Fallacy of the false dilemma: saying there are only 2 alternatives to consider in  some issue when there are actually more than two EX­ either you support war or  you are a traitor to your country. You don’t support war, you are a traitor. WHEN  youre given an either or statement, but there could clearly me more  9) Fallacy of the loaded question: attempting to get an answer to a question that  assumes the truth of an unaproved assumption. Ex: have you stopped beating your  dog? ­­­ yes= beating dog N
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