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University of Ottawa

Inference the process of moving from a Recognizing an Argumentpremise or premises in an argument to a conclusionStatement Claim that something is or is not the caseHow do we recognize argumentsLook for a conclusion and look for the A statement is a simple sentence that has supporting premisesjust one meaning for it expresses one Look for inference indicatorsthoughtInferences are often embodied in certain indicator words which show you which Also a statement asserts that something way the direction of the argument is flowingis the case or is not the case When a statement asserts that something is the There are two types of inference indicators case it is called an affirmation when it premise indicators and conclusion asserts that something is not the case it is indicatorsalso called a negation denialPremise indicators are followed by a One way to recognize a statement is to look premisefor sentences that could be given as a direct Examples of premise indicator wordsanswer to a straightforward question Because since in view of the fact given Another is to look for a sentencethat for the reason that for or due to the fact thatPremise A statement given in support of Ex We should go back to Joes Diner another statement a claim put forth as a because we had fun there last weekreason for a conclusionWe can expect Dad to be late since hes Conclusion a statement that premises are always late when he stops at Canadian Tire meant to support A claim meant to be supported by reasons offered in the Conclusion indicators are followed by a argumentconclusionArgument A group of statements in which Examples of conclusion indicator wordssome of them the premises are intended to support another of them the conclusion Therefore thus so consequently it follows A set of claims one of which is meant to be that we can conclude that ergo or hencesupported by othersThe quiz is tomorrow so we should studySo in critical thinking terms the word argument doesnt just mean a debate a I got sick last time we went there therefore dispute or a contradiction we shouldnt go back thereExample of premise and conclusion in Arguments with missing aspectsactionIf something is left out then the receiver Premise I got food poisoning when I ate listener reader of the argument needs to there lastfill in the blanksConclusion I want to avoid that restaurant More interpretation needed by the listener from here on inor assessor
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