Arguments tent to have at least one premise and conclusion.
3 kinds of questions about ethics (A, G, R)
1. Acceptable (are premises acceptable?)
2. Relevant to conclusion
3. Grounds for accepting conclusion
What makes something right or wrong, = Normative theory
Both applied ethics and normative theory address values
Ex: of normative theory:
Motive | Act | Effect
Because it makes me I give $$ Thereby saving
Feel good ▯ to charity ▯ a live
3 big positions at the centre of normative theory each emphasizes the motive, act, or
1. Most dominant answer to what makes something right, a big position is “
Consequentialism” most famous version is called “ Utilitarianism”
Utilitarianism= the only way an answer is right or wrong, is dependent of the
effthts of it. actions are right insofar that they maximize happiness or pleasure.
19 century. Jeremy Bentham & J.S Mill.
Bentham was powerful and practical. Interested in quantity of pleasure. The
greatest possible happiness (quantative) bentehm tries to give tools to answer the
questions below. Wants the greatest happiness.
2 dimensions to count
1) Number of people affected (or # of people made happy/ unhappy)
2) Ask how happy or how unhappy something makes you (Intensity of happy /
intensity of pain) which outweighs which.
Utilitarian’s emphasize only one thing = Happiness. Only had to look at the effect
Pluralistic consequentialisms they have nuance view on things that matter. They
think happiness matters but its only one thing amongst other things that matter.