Aristotle – Phronesis, Deliberation, the Good Life, Justice
Sophists - taught rhetoric – how to defend oneself in court
Metics - not free to participate in the institutions of the state
Allegory of the Cave – imitations of the “real” world
The Ecclesia (roughly like parliament – assembly where the citizens would debate
1. Recap and some extras on Plato:
• Strategic reasoning – “game theory” – is not an adequate explanation of morality.
(Why not? A. Problem explaining free riding. B. Wrong explanation anyway).
-How to govern is normative, not just prudential (sophists) and theoretical
(involves real knowledge).
• Rule by lovers of wisdom – i.e. philosophers who have episteme: knowledge of
Forms (conceptual, theoretical knowledge) Elitism – not “any cook can govern.”
“…until lovers of wisdom rule or until rulers become lovers of wisdom…”
• Property and the raising of children in common. So no private property and
• No slaves
• Gender equality of opportunity
• Collectivist, perfectionist, elitist (totalitarian? Popper, Berlin, von Hayek).
• Agrees with perfectionism (an important function of the state is to make people moral
beings/unable them to be virtuous), and importance of justice for social harmony (but
different conception of justice). • Rejects Platonic metaphysics and epistemology, the rule by entrenched elite, and
repudiation of competition for honour and power. Restores importance of political
• Ends up preserving natural slavery and paternalism
• Allegiance to the whole important, but other allegiances to other associations too. Good
life is complex, and not just to serve the whole.