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Lecture 8

Lecture 8 - Locke

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University of Ottawa
Daniel Kofman

Jan. 30, 2014 Recap: • Unlike Hobbes, moralized state of nature – Locke morals come from God – there are moral duties • Among moral rights is the right to property • So that is Pre-Political: no consent required. Exists prior to political organization • Property includes first: self-ownership, then one’s rights and liberties, and by extension other objects one comes to own legitimately. • We contract to put ourselves under government to have a standard, stable, public, enforceable rule of law: impartial judges and common, known laws, and enforced uniformly (none of which are in Hobbes) • Actual contract, but tacit (as opposed to expressed) – we actually contract by tacitly consenting • Right of rebellion if our fundamental property rights (including liberties and “Hobbesian” security rights) are violated.  People always remain sovereign – liberty is inalienable (may not sell oneself into slavery or “quit one’s station”) – and Supreme Power is fiduciary – holds power in trust. • Inalienable – you can’t give it away even if you consent • Locke – there are moral duties in the state of nature (moral realism – just take God out of it) • Why can’t you take your own life? Your fundamental right attributes duties to everyone else. • You have a right and duty to be educated (fundamental right)  Majority rule • If the majority agrees to certain legislation, are t
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