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Lecture

Rawls’ Egalitarian Theory and Nozick’s Libertarian Critique March 11, 2014

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Department
Philosophy
Course
PHI2183
Professor
Teva Vidal
Semester
Winter

Description
Rawls’Egalitarian Theory and Nozick’s Libertarian Critique March 11, 2014 Recap- Rawls’critique of intuitionism Intuitionism allows for a plurality of principles of maximum generality, but the priority problem; you can’t adjudicate conflicts between principles and different people have different indifference curves Can’t rule out intuitionism a priori but if a constructivist procedure can do better, the proof will be in the pudding; does it generate a better outcome (single highest principle or related plurality of principles, which capture our intuitions and thus achieve reflective equilibrium Mill and Rawls both attack intuitionism. Rawls believes principles should be ordered lexically, and both hold that morality should be deduced from principle Every intuitionist/pluralist thinks maximising utility is one good thing but there are others; fairness, promises made, etc. (see Kymlicka and lending money) Mill chapter 5 talks of happiness as going beyond pleasure-pain Bentham- utility=happiness= pleasure – pain; hedonic=pleasure based. Mill more accommodating; Bentham human happiness different than pig’s happiness. Bentham says one will not substitute higher pleasures for lower ones. Mill wants to be conciliatory and at the same time wants to be loyal to Bentham and this father, James Mill. Mill suggests he is a hedonic utilitarian, and wants to be a one value philosopher Some utilitarians accepted general welfare, well-being, preference satisfaction- like consequentialism Intuitionists believe there are principles to apply to different situations; they try to make them one principle- there should be a determinate order of principles among them Rawls on intuitionism: he believes it’s possible to go beyond intuitions, but there is no way to get beyond a plurality of principles. Intuition is important, but should be reduced when possible. Justice as fairness principles of justice chosen under original position- we can put principles in serial or lexical order-need to understand first principle before second and so on; either by a single principle or a plurality in a lexical order Mill and Rawls agree on a lexical order of principles Rawls’constructivist procedure: hypothetical contract; not like state of nature because there is not claim it’s real, and the parties themselves are not fully real; this idea of a contract is borrowed from Hobbes and Locke Artificial state of nature- stipulated (agreed) original position –unlike state of nature • No claim to be real or historical • Parties not fully real • Real society- Canada or US in 20 -21 centuries- is assumed to exist along with its production of primary goods and its Basic Structure Read Kymlicka on Rawls’contract The real society- it exists- the product
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