BIO1130 Lecture 3 September 12, 2013
• Inspite of extreme cultural movement, the medieval era of the 16 century never emphasized
the study of the living world – biology. What was believed was viewed through the Christian
religion with a 'great chain of being' from God down to the untamed animals. Uses essentialism
introduced by Aristotle. Describes the species created as non-changing which were all made or
introduced on Oct 23, 4004 BCE.All diversity were all created by some designer of some sort
who created the diverse species specifically for the world. Significance is the inclusion of an
age for the Earth.
• Science, even biological sciences take off in the Byzantium/Islamic Era (781-869). The concept
of evolution is introduced in this era, 800 to be exact.Avicenna was the one who started on
Biology in this era with immense contributions to the biological discoveries therein.Alhazen
(965-1040). Brought about the scientific method using principles of observation, statement
questioning, hypothesis creation and testing, analysis of experimental results, interpretation and
publication. Ibn-al-Baitar created the pharmacological view of medicinal plants.
• 16 -18 century was the era of scientific r