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(3) Defining Disease.docx

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3 Chapter 2Defining Disease19012010W Miller Brown On Defining DiseaseWe need a concept of disease in order to be able to define health negatively as lack of disease There are 2 approaches toward defining diseaseobjectivist and normative1ObjectivistDescriptive approachTries to fit the notion of disease within the theoretical framework of modern biological science This approach shows that we can define disease without appealing to nonscientific standards norms or values This is a descriptive approachAccording to the objectivist approach disease is an impairment deviation from the normal functioning of the body maladaptation incapacity or disfunctioning It is upon the biological science to describe successfully the normal bodily processes as well as their deviationsThe objectivist approach developed by Boorse ignores the ordinary understanding and ordinary language and relies on technical concepts such as biological function etcBoorses definition of disease A type of internal state which is either an impairment of normal functional ability ie a reduction of one or more functional abilities below typical efficiency or a limitation on functional ability caused by environmental agentsDisease judgments are valueneutral This definition relies on the determination of a reference class in order to establish which functions are statistically normalIt appears that in Boorses definition of disease the key concepts are that of a function and of normalAccording to Brown Boorses general definition of a function as goalo
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