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Lecture 8

Lecture 8 - Nietzsche

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University of Ottawa
Sonia Sikka

Oct. 2, 2013 Nietzsche on Morality  Natural history of morals  Placing the focus on the agent rather than the patient of morality  All the analysis has been on the effects of morality  He is more interested in the creation of morality – motivations, psychology, society, environment of these people that create values  Multiple creators of these moralities  Moralities should be understood in terms of the people that create them (psychology, history, culture) – explains different moral codes  Moralities based on utility – based on the welfare of the community Different types: -love of one’s neighbor -fear of one’s neighbor – moral code that arises out of wanting to protect one’s self -Production of ‘excellence’ – forms of humanity -equality – as a value -happiness  Valuing excellence in oneself is not the same as valuing happiness  We decide what is good or bad, right or wrong, based on our inclinations, which are shaped by our environment  Slave & Master morality -values of the slaves: drives are given expansion, have a wide range of freedom in the world – values can be practiced -values of the slaves: powerful will, but checked by their environment, rather motivated by resentment, reaction to their negative situation  Always motivated by self-interest  Reductionism – psychological egoism - reduces moral values to forms of self-interests. Pride regarding acting morally – higher self  Moralities are ‘the sign language of emotions’ 110, 187.  Slave morality originates out of revenge mentality towards the masters  How do we evaluate psychological egoism? Motivations? -only acting ethically do be commended for it? -because it benefits them? (self-interest) -not necessarily concerned with justice  Will to power  Slave morality – testimony of the psychology of slaves  Naturalism – everything can be explained in terms of nature – depends on your understand of nature.  For Nietzsche, in terms of will to power – life is understood in terms of will to power  Se
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