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Chapter_13_-_Motivationa.doc
Chapter_13_-_Motivationa.doc

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School
University of Ottawa
Department
Physics
Course
PHY4327
Professor
Kenneth Campbell
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 13- Motivation & Emotion Motivation - a general term for a group of phenomena that affect the nature, strength, or persistence of an individuals behaviour o a driving force that moves us to a particular action includes two types of phenomena, o stimuli that have become associated with pleasant or unpleasant events motivate approach or avoidance behaviours many approaches to motivation: physiological, behavioural, cognitive, and social three important categories of motivated behaviours: eating, sexual behaviour, and aggression o important to the survival of the individual & of the species situations that motivate our behaviour also provoke emotions What is Motivation? We are motivated to perform a behaviour to gain a reinforcer or to avoid a punisher Biological Needs: Regulatory Behaviours - a behaviour that tends to bring physiological conditions back to normal, thus restoring the condition of homeostasis (eg. Eating, drinking, hunting, shivering, etc) o Complex organisms possess physiological mechanisms that detect deficits or imbalances and restore the organism to its full potential Homeostasis - process by which important physiological characteristics (such as body temperature and blood pressure) are regulated so that they remain at their optimum level Deficits or imbalances motivate us because they cause us to perform appropriate regulatory behaviours Regulatory system has FOUR essential features: system variable, set point, detector, and correctional mechanism o System Variable - variable controlled by a regulatory mechanism; for example, temperature in a heating system o Set Point - optimum value of the system variable in a regulatory mechanism; set point for human body temperature, recorded orally, is approximately 37 degrees Celsius o Detector - in regulatory process, a mechanisms that signals when the system variable deviates from its set point o Correctional Mechanism - a regulatory process, the mechanisms that is capable of restoring the system variable to the set point Negative Feedback - process whereby the effect produced by an action serves to diminish or terminate that action; Regulatory systems are characterized by negative feedback loops o is an essential characteristic of all regulatory systems Drive Reduction Hypothesis - hypothesis that a drive (resulting from physiological need or deprivation) produces an unpleasant state that causes an organism to engage in motivated behaviours; reduction of drive is assumed to be reinforcing Drive - a condition, often caused by physiological changes or homeostatic disequilibrium, that energizes an organisms behaviour o Act of eating reduces hunger, and this drive reduction is reinforcing An individual can survive without sexual behaviour; but sex drive is certainly motivating, and sexual contact is certainly reinforcing Many events that we experience as reinforcing are also exciting or drive increasing Experiences that we really want to repeat are those that increase, rather than decrease our level of arousal Physiology of Reinforcement: Electrical stimulation of parts of the brain can reinforce an animals behaviour Electrical stimulation of the brain is reinforcing because it activates the same system that is activated by natural reinforcers & by drugs that people commonly abuse o Function is to strengthen the connections between neurons that detect discriminative stimulus and the neurons that produce operant response Optimum-Level Theory: Removal or avoidance of an aversive stimulus produces negative reinforcement Optimum-Level Hypothesis - hypothesis that organisms will perform behaviour that restores the level of arousal to an optimum level When an individuals arousal level is too high, less stimulation is reinforcing, when it is too low, more stimulation is desired Two forms of exploration related to arousal: Diversive Exploration & Specific Exploration o Diversive Exploration- is a response to understimulation (boredom) that increases the diversity of the stimuli the organism tries to come in contact with o Specific Exploration- is a response to overstimulation (usually because of a specific need, such as lack of food or water) that leads to the needed item, thereby decreasing the organisms drive level At optimum level of arousal: mid-range behaviour is organized and effective o Increasing arousal will produce increasingly effective behvaiour Too little arousal in the suboptimal range: leads to ineffective behaviour because the person is not sufficiently motivated Too much arousal outside optimal range: leads to disorganized & ineffective behaviour Perseverance: Perseverance - the tendency to continue to perform a behaviour even when it is not being reinforced o They continue to perform even though their work is not regularly reinforced When an organisms behaviour is no longer reinforced, behaviour eventually ceases, or extinguishes If behaviour is previously reinforced every time it occurred, extinction is very rapid However, if it was previously reinforced only intermittently, behaviour persists for a long time o Intermittent reinforcement leads to perseverance, even when the behaviour is no longer reinforced Extrinsic rewards - those that originate outside oneself Intrinsic rewards - those that originate inside oneself Overjustification Hypothesis - the superfluous application of extrinsic rewards to intrinsically motivated behaviour will undermine intrinsic motivation o Net result is a loss of intrinsic motivation o Ex: if a person has become motivated by extrinsic rewards and those rewards are no longer available, the person will no longer be motivated and we will witness a decrease in perseverance Learned Helplessness - a response to exposure to an inescapable aversive stimulus, characterized by reduced ability to learn a solvable avoidance task; thought to play a role in the development of some psychological disturbances o Helplessness training lowers their expectation that trying to perform a task will bring success Eating need to
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