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POL 1102 G - Politics Globalization - Mark Salter - 17 Mar. 03.docx

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University of Ottawa
Political Science
Mark Salter

POL 1102 G - Politics & Globalization - Mark Salter - 17 Mar. 03 United Nations Peacekeeping - Globalized Army? - TA’s presentation The Problem: increasing Western isolationism • Less interest in interventions - TheAfghanistan/Iraq Effect • NATO • Decreases in military spending across the West • Syria Different terms of international intervention • Peacekeeping - refers to what the UN used to do, maintaining peace - now to establish peace • Peace enforcement - doesn’t assume there’s a ceasefire on the ground already • Peacemaking - What NATO does, bringing conflicting sides to talk and make peace between them • Stability Operations • Operations other than War (OOTW) • Peacebuilding - All terms to say war, but not using “war” The politics: Chapter VII of the UN Charter & the role of the Security Council • Countries can use all available means to protect international peace • The legal framework allowing peacekeeping United Nations Peacekeeping • Blue Berets/Helmets - Those operating under the UN • UNPKOs cost vs. NATO missions - UN missions are cheaper than NATO missions • UN PK missions tend to be, and can be, long-term - UNTSO since 1945, UNMOGIP 1948, Cyprus 1964 - have rotating troops & members • The largest deployed armed force in the world - more than NATO - this is a new development Top PK Contributors to UN peacekeeping 1. Pakistan 2. India 3. Ethiopia 4. Bangladesh 5. Rwanda 62. US - Only 22 are sent from US to UN pking troops 63. Canada - Only 20 are sent from Canada • - Developed countries contribute 44% to PK (1993) - India 9% - Pakistan 8% - Bangladesh 5% - Egypt 3% - Other Non-OECD countries 31.1% • - In 2013, other non-OECD contributed 60% - India 8% Recurring issues with the “new face of peacekeeping” • B/c they primarily come from developing countries, there’s a severe lack of training and equipment for them • Also, the tech-level available to the PKers are low - tech stagnancy in pkg • the biggest problem is that the countries that are involved have ulterior motives to exactly where they’re sending their troops - impartiality issues Financing PKing • US spends about 28% of the PKing missions - not voluntary, part of the UN contract, to be a part of the UN • Japan (11%), France (7%), Germany (7%), UK (6%), China (7%), Italy (4%), Russia, (3%), Canada (3%), Spain (3%) Should Canada Get Back Into PKing? • Popular support - usually the top foreign policy interest by the public - Canadian identity attached to PKing • Military interest - from the Department of Defence - if their equipment isn’t used, it usually is taken away • Pearson Training Centre - one of the best training centres for exercises/simulations - was shut down last year due to lack of funding - still there though, so it can be restarted • UN credibility - Our last seat in the UN was in the 1999-2000 - Canada can be seen as not caring about the UN anymore - Last year, Canada ran for a seat on the security council, but didn’t get it, the first time this happened Fatalities By Year • 1991 - 15 deaths • 1993 - 252 • 1995 - 126 • 1997 - 49 • 2000 - 60 • 2005 - 131 • 2013 - 105 • Only thing to note, it’s dangerous “I think Canada has a lot of exp in the sphere of minorities & their integration into society. I think Canada & its organizations and people can bring a lot to building peace here.” - Catherine Samba-Panza, Interim President of CAR “The UN itself couldn’t run a one-man rush to the outhouse. Pragmatically, it was almost criminal t put Canadian troops under UN command… b/c the UN was fundamentally incapable of running effective military operations.” - General Rick Hillier Teacher talks about Ukraine (unorganized dialogue) The League of Nations made war illegal, but… Both times when the LoN complained about Italy and Japan invading, they just said the LoN had their facts wrong and had to conduct a fact-finding mission to understand what’s truly going on. However, by the time the results of these missions were done, the facts on the ground had changed, they had already invaded. The Security Council was then created to rectify this problem. Now all the great 5 powers get a veto : Russia, China, France, US, & the UK. Now these countries can’t go to war with each other under the UN mission, b/c of the veto. So for the Ukraine problem today, there will not be a Security Council resolution due to the veto, and since Ukraine isn’t a part of the permanent G5 me
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