Class Notes (810,182)
Canada (493,974)
POL2101 (183)
Lecture 2

Lecture 2 Indigenous Peoples

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University of Ottawa
Political Science
Luc Turgeon

Jan. 15, 2014  Hartz-Horowitz Thesis • Understanding in the 1960s why Canada was more “socially progressive” than the United States • Notion of where settlers came they brought one ideology and it tended to congealment over time creating a dominant political culture • Canada had a “Tory-touch” (where the United States were uniformly liberal) more conducive to progressive politics • Liberalism + Toryism = Socialism • Quebec was “feudal” (backwards)  Critiques • Revisionist historians • Forbes (to read) Key Words • Royal Proclamation • IndianAct • Colonialism • 1969 White Paper • Royal Commission onAboriginal People • Self-Government Key Questions • What is the legacy of the IndianAct • What is the legacy of the 1969 White Paper? • What are some of the models proposed for renewing the relation betweenAboriginals and the Canadian state? Indigenous Peoples in Canada • Original inhabitants of NorthAmerica • 4% of the Canadian population • Diverse population 1- First Nations 2- Métis (descendants of indigenous people and French settlers) 1/3 of indigenous population 3- Inuit (indigenous people of Northern Canada) Colonialism • “Process of exploitation, domination and subjection of a people by another people Ex: French and English settlers’colonialism (exploitation and domination of indigenous peoples) Ex: European country colonies inAfrica • In the context of Indigenous People in Canada o Control over lands and resources – took land and did not always respect treaties o Control over peoples: “civilizing missions” - colonialism was justified on the basis of superior cultures (European culture is superior to indigenous culture) Royal Proclamation (1763) • Document that sets out guidelines for European settlement ofAboriginal territories – treaty that claimed indigenous people still own the land • Establish the relation betweenAboriginal and the Crown – Royal Proclamation forbids people from buying land from indigenous people. Only the Crown can negotiate land purchasing with indigenous people (and they could then sell it to others). • Still valid today? – some claim yes – no law overrules it Section 25 of the Constitution Act of 1982 enshrines the Royal Proclamation Land Cession Treaties (1764 – 1923) • Transfer of land title in exchange fromAboriginal to the Crown (only 2-5% of their original territory) – restrictions and hunting and fishing rights • Treaties were often not respected • Not all areas of Canada were covered by treaties – BC and Quebec treaties were never signed The Indian Act of 1876 • Key Characteristics – has been modified over the years but still in place today -TheAct that turned theAboriginal population into legal wards of the state -they became the responsibility of the Canadian state  Created a centralized bureaucracy to administer all affairs of indigenous people  The state decides who has indigenous status and who does not  Sexist definition – if an indigenous man married a white woman, he maintained status. If an indigenous woman married a white man, she lost status.  System of enfranchisement – over time, Indians would lose their status because they would become full citizens – indigenous people would lose their indigenous status if they got their university degree or became a doctor, lawyer, etc. Education = loss of status and become Canadian citizen. Indigenous people did not have the right to vote – they were not considered citizens, they were wards of the state.  Removed traditional methods for indigenous peoples to govern their affairs (election of chiefs, etc.)  Only indigenous people could live on indigenous land  No provincial or federal tax could be imposed on indigenous people • Govern Status Indians but not Métis and Inuit  60% of the indigenous population  1885 – forbidden indigenous ceremonies  1905 – must gain permission to appear in ceremonial garb  1930 – prohibition from pool-halls  1960 – right to vote • Different amendments adopted over the years • Still governing the relationship between the Crown andAboriginals Philosophies of the IndianAct • Protection – we want to protect their community by deciding who that community
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