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POL2101 (222)
Lecture 3

Lecture 3 - Quebec Politics and French Canada

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Political Science
Luc Turgeon

Jan. 17, 2014 Quebec Politics and French Canada Key terms • French Canadian nationalism • Conquest • Patriot rebellion • Survivance (survival) and “Revanche des berceaux” (Revenge of the Cradle) • Quiet revolution • Quebec nationalism • Bill 101 • Sovereignty-association Key Elements • French fact in Canada today  22% of the population have French as their mother tongue (29% in 1951)  79.7% in Quebec  Over 85% live in Quebec  Insecurity among the French – loss of the French language  Quebec is the province with the highest rate of bilingualism • Nationalism  Abelief system that gives special significance to the nation as a source of loyalty. As a nation, it wishes to promote and preserve.  Nationalism can change over time has the definition of the nation change (originally it included all French-Canadians. Now it is more focused on Quebecers). New France and the “Trauma” of the Conquest • French colony, but limited resources  Very slow expansion (not much support from France – not a lot of settlers) • Conquest as a “traumatic” event in Quebec history • Loyal citizens of the British Crown  QuebecAct, 1774  ConstitutionAct, 1791 Patriot Rebellion and its Aftermath • Responsible government and the fight against the Chateau Clique  1837-1838 rebellions – not just Francophones, but alsoAnglophones (Irish) • Defeat and the Durham Report  The French need to assimilate into the English community • Profoundly transformed nationalism in the province  The goal of Quebec is to preserve (survive) as a people, religion, and culture • Survivance and the Revenge of the Cradle French Canadian Nationalism • Key role of the Church  Not just a language issue – also about preserving Catholicism • Boundaries  All of Canada  Protection of French-Canadian minorities key • Characteristics  FrenchAND Catholicism  Special vocation as a people  CANADIAN nationalists (Henri Bourassa) – various types of nationalists (just French, just religion, all Canadians together)  Differences in terms of political objectives La Survivance “Round about us strangers have come, whom we are wont to call barbarians; they have seized almost all the power; they have acquired almost all the money, but in the country of Quebec nothing has changed…We have held out own, so that, it may be, after several centuries more, the world will turn to us and say; these people are of a race that knows not how to perish…In the country of Quebec, nothing shall die, and nothing shall changed.” - Louis Hemon, Maria Chapdeleine  Very conservative nationalism – to persevere as a people and not assimilate “La Grande Noirceur”: Myth or Reality? – Duplessis (premier of Québec until 1960) • “Priest-ridden province”  Church has a wide role in the province – almost every family had a son who became a priest • “Unholy alliance” • Backward, folk society • Obsession with communism – Duplessis’obsession – communists were atheist (instead of Catholic) and against religion • Anti-Semitism and rights of minorities • The Refus Global and theAsbestos Crisis • Was Quebec that unique?  Revisionism in Quebec history  Unique insofar as the power of the Catholic Church  But communism and anti-Semitism were issues everywhere else in NorthAmerica Quiet Revolution • Election of the Liberal Party of Quebec in 1960 • The State takes over responsibiliti
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