Class Notes (806,720)
Canada (492,424)
POL2101 (183)

L5 - Immigration and Multiculturalism

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University of Ottawa
Political Science
Luc Turgeon

Jan. 24, 2014 Immigration and Multiculturalism Immigrants as a “Third Force” in Canadian Politics Key Words: • “Third force” (not on exam) • “Vertical Mosaic” • Multiculturalism • Visible minorities and Employment Equity History of Immigration in Canada • Encouraged immigration to populate western provinces  But discouraged certain groups from settling in Canada (Indian and Chinese)  Overwhelming immigration until 1950 from Great Britain o Encouraged immigrants to settle in the west, but only certain immigrants o Chinese immigrants to build the rail road – limit Chinese immigration with tax after the rail road is built. Tax started at $50, by the end of the 20 c. it was $500. o Eventually the tax was abolished, but replaced by not allowing Chinese immigrants at all. o Indians from India coming by boat – stops in other countries on the way. Canada established a law that says immigrants must come directly from their country (impossible coming from India). o Canada basically only wanted British immigrants • Explicitly excluded certain nationalities from 1919 to 1967 • Two important ImmigrationActs during that period (1919 and 1952) o Immigration classes based on nationality – preference given to British citizens – very easy to become a Canadian citizen o 1952 – British subjects, French citizens,American residents, andAsians, but only if they have relatives in Canada. No homosexuals or prostitutes. o Italian immigrants seen as inferior o Manitoba and Saskatchewan brought in a wave of European immigrants o Canada has the highest rate of immigration based on its population Contemporary Immigration Policy • Adoption of the point systems (1967) o Immigration policies change over time o Points given based on - knowledge of the two official languages of Canada, education (but diplomas are not recognized), economic status (the rich can basically pay for their citizenship) • Creation of categories of immigrants (1976-8) o Sponsors/Family class – decline over the last few years o Independent/Autonomic class o Humanitarian class (refugees) - people displaced by warfare & people who suffer from discrimination in their home country • Provincial responsibility over immigration  Quebec control over immigration o Our Constitution states that immigration is the responsibility of both levels of government o Trudeau suggests provinces become involved in immigration by creating their own immigration program – only Quebec accepts. o Quebec gains control of their immigration – bonus points for speaking French o Refugees are still the responsibility of the government o Immigrants who come to Quebec o Over the last decade, most immigrants are from the Philippines, China and India o Quebec took in a lot of French speaking Moroccan and Algerian immigrants (religious symbols legislation) o Lots of French immigrants go to Quebec – student exchange program  Provincial nominee program o Provinces have the ability to recruit immigrants to fill certain labor positions o Manitoba and Nova Scotia weren’t getting a lot of immigrants – they develop their own program based on immigrants’skills Canada and Ethnic Diversity Prior to the 1960s • Emphasis on the British connection  Canada first movement o In the beginning, being Canadian meant being British – racial homogeneity of Canada • Anti-immigration attitudes (read J.S. Woodworth)
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