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POL2101 (222)
Lecture 15

Political Parties I and II.docx

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Department
Political Science
Course
POL2101
Professor
Luc Turgeon
Semester
Winter

Description
Political Parties I and II Key Terms • Political parties • Brokerage politics • Party system(s) in Canadian politics • Third Parties in Canadian politics • Different political parties o Liberal Party o Conservative Party o CCF/NDP o Other Political Parties: A Reminder • Definition: “Any political group that presents at election, and is capable of placing through elections, candidates for public office (Sartori).” • Multiple functions in our political system • Types of political parties o Cadre vs mass parties o Ideological vs catch-all Brokerage parties • A party that tries to appeal to a variety of interests and bridge those differences by promising benefits to a variety of interests o Objective is to incorporate representative from different regions and groups • Why? o Electoral success o Need to maintain national unity and social stability • Perspectives on brokerage parties o Necessary in a country like Canada o Tweedledum and Tweedledee (lack of creative politics) Party System • Definition: “A pattern of electoral competition that emerges between two or more parties” • Duverger, electoral system and the number of parties o Two-party system vs multi-party system • Party system in the study of Canadian politics: other criteria (Patten) o Organizational structure o Party leadership and relationship with citizens through the media o Discursive framework o Relation with other institutions (interest groups, social movements, etc) • Alignment and Realignment First Party System, 1867-1921 • Two-party system (roots in pre- Confederation Canada) • Parties were loose coalitions • Party organization did not really exist o Creatures of parliament o Leaders selected by the caucus • Patronage • Key focus was the national policy • Dealignment started in the 1910s o Liberal started to oppose the National policy o Regional protest and the Progressive Party Second Party System, 1921-57 • Two and a half party system, but with Liberal dominance o Third parties were present but had limited success • Organization o Establishment of an extra- parliamentary organization, but limited o Beginning of the election of party leaders (although very controlled) • Ministerialism • Gradual transition to Keynesian • Delalignment with the election of Diefenbaker o Liberal dominance in Québec was challenged, as well as its presence in Western Canada Third Party System, 1957-1993 • Two and a half party system o Stronger presence of the NDP • Altered regional balance and diminished power of the Liberal o Minority governments o Smaller basis • Active expansion of extra-parliamentary wings and professional campaign organization o Delegated party convention • Change in financing and electoral campaign • Discursive framework: Keynesianism and its crisis • Dealignment: middle of Mulroney’s second term Fourth Party System, 1993- ? • Multiparty system o Regionalized electoral competition • Direct election of party leaders o But growing concentration of powers o Virtual party • Financing o End of corporate donation • Focus on neoliberal retrenchment • Toward a fifth party system? o Dealignment (2006) and Realignment (2011) Conservative Parties • Significant changes over time o Organization, names and values  It will change names, values over time. o Progressive conservatives  They have gradually took people from the west into the conservative party • Main opposition party o Opposed by French-Canadians, Catholics and Western Canada (until Diefenbaker)  It was very popular in Ontario and central Canada.  It was opposed by the West because it was protection  Catholics did like them because they were the party of protestants o Three important PM: Macdonald, Bennett and Diefenbaker • Key themes o Opposition to closer link to the United States (until Mulroney)  Oppose to close links to USA esspecailly economic links o Monarchy and link to Great Britain  Historically, they oppose the US and Love the British. They value that we live in a system of monarchy Conservative Parties • The Mulroney era (1984-1993) o Promote closer relation with the United States  He embrace relation with the US and does not follow the historical ideas of the US o Unique (unstable) coalition: Quebec and the West  Quebec followed the conservative because Mulroney was from northern Quebec  Signed a contract with an aviation company in Quebec instead of the west • Reform Party and the Canadian Alliance o Opposed focus on Québec, more social conservative, more populist and mostly based in the west  They are more socially conservative, and they want to listen to constituation  There was a growth of the Bloc Quebecois and a nationalistic ideals o Failed attempt at becoming a more national party  They was a huge split of the vote between the conservatives between the two parties • Conservative Party (2003-) o Product of a merger between the Canadian Alliance and the Conservative Party o Everything old is new again?  Are we just seeing a revival of the Progressive Conservative or not, It moved away from its roots of the reform party • Canada’s new natural governing party? Liberal Party of Canada • One of the most successful parties in the world o Because it was in power longer and is the most centralist o When a centralist party goes to 3 it will stay in 3 rd • Changing position over time o From p
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