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POL2101 (183)

January 16.docx

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University of Ottawa
Political Science
Luc Turgeon

January 16, 2013 Aboriginal Politics Key Words - Royal Proclamation - Indian Act - Colonialism - 1969 White Paper - Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples - Self-Government Key Questions - What is the legacy of the Indian Act? - What is the legacy of the 1969 White Paper? - What are some of the models proposed for renewing the relation between Aboriginals and the Canadian state? Aboriginal Peoples in Canada - Original inhabitants of North America - 3.4%of the Canadian pop. o Certain provinces it is the significant portion of the population o SK and MN about 15% of pop. - Diverse population o 3 categories of citizens  First Nations 60%  The Metis 33%  The Inuit 4% o 40-60 distinct nations with in this (Micmac, Cree, etc) o 50 languages o 50-70% live in urban areas  Not all reserves  Increasing portion live in/move to the cities Colonialism - “Process of exploitation, domination and subjection of a people by another people.” o Examples  India, assimilation, the Congo, resource exploitation, abuse of human rights - In the context of Indigenous Peoples in Canada o Controls over lands and resources o Control over peoples: “civilising mission” Royal Proclamation - Document that sets out guidelines for Euro settlement of Aboriginal territories o Ab. Control of the land was recognized and brit. Crown would respect that o Forbade settlers coming to Canada to settle there unless it had first been bought by the crown and then sold to the settlers o Basically stated that ONLY the CROWN could buy land from indigenous people - Est. the relation between Aboriginal and the Crown - Still valid today? o It was never overruled o Section 25 of the constitution specifically states that nothing can override that Land Cession Treaties (1764-1923) - Transfer of land title in exchange from Aboriginal to the Crown o Reserve land on the territory o Financial compensation in return - Treaties were often not respected o Encroachment over the reserves- became smaller and smaller - Not all areas of Canada were covered by treaties o QB and BC o See map on slides o Most of the development happens in QB and BC o A lot of treaties begin to happen between the indigenous and provincial gov. The Indian Act of 1876 - Key characteristics o Aboriginals are legal wards of the state  Put in one document practices that have existed for a number of years  Each ab
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