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POL 2103 E - Intro to International Relations and Global Politics - Joseph Roman - 15 Feb. 24.docx

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University of Ottawa
Political Science
Mark Salter

POL 2103 E - Intro to International Relations & Global Politics - Joseph Roman - 15 Feb. 24 The Start of World War 1 • Prussia’s Kaiser Wilhelm II encouragesAustria-Hungary to confront Serbia in the hope that once settled, its forces could be turned against Russia • Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia on July 28, 1914 • Russia’s response leads Prussia to declare war on it onAugust 1, 1914 • The UK is brought into the war when Prussia’s Schlieffen Plan violates Belgian sovereignty in order to envelope Paris • Colonies in Africa & the Central & South Pacific are brought into WWI, globalizing it Features of WWI 1. WWI foreshadows the destructiveness of war 2. Trench warfare 3. Atrocities committed against civilians 4. Total war - full mobilization of societies for warfare 5. The USAenters world affairs - this is significant, the traditionalAmerican stance was and still is isolation 6. The end of the Russian Empire and Europe’s last feudal stronghold Why did WWI End? 1. Germany believed it could win WWI once hostilities ceased on the eastern front 2. The USA’s mobilization on the western front led to heavy German casualties 3. The German army was exhausted. 4. Economic turmoil on the homefront. 5. Kaiser Wilhelm II fears Bolshevism could break out during the war & he sues fro an armistice on November 11, 1918 • US President Woodrow Wilson’s 14 Points, a speech given to Congress to assure them that the USA’s involvement in WWI would have noble aims was based on liberalism • 14 Points served as the basis of surrender, which was discussed at the Paris Peace Conference of Jan. 1919 & it only embraced 2 out of Wilson’s 14 pts: the League of Nations & the establishment of nation-states The Inter-War Crisis, 1919-1939 • Treaty of Versailles established the League of Nations, yet the German reparations that it established were severe • In addition to Versailles, civil war followed the Russian Revolution • Pro-monarchist White Russians supported by the UK, the USA, & France & once defeated, the USSR is established in 1922 • Lenin’s death in 1924 leads to Josef Stalin taking power & implements a policy of “socialism in 1 country” Why an Inter-War Crisis 1. The UK & France were unwilling to enforce the peace 2. The USAdrifts back into isolationism 3. The Great Depression 4. The rise of fascism in Germany & Italy & Japan’s militarism 5. The League of Nations could not protect a country sovereignty after Japan’s invasion of Manchuria in 1931 & Italy’s 1935 invasion ofAbyssinia 6. The MunichAgreement of 1938 - Adolf Hitler felt this gave him a free pass to Eastern Europe. This proved what he already thought. UK & France weren’t gonna do anything. He felt that it was liberalism that caused them to capitulate to his demands. What started WWII? 1. Italy, Germany, & Japan did not know when to quit 2. German expansionism 3. Mussolini’s dream of another Roman Empire leads him to annexAlbania 4. Japan takes over northern & eastern China & emboldened by the UK’s inability to do anything in the Pacific, it demands that the USAgives it a free hand or else Tokyo would declare war • Pearl Harbor occurs on Dec. 7, 1940, drawing the USA into war, declaring war on Japan the following day • By virtue of Japan’s alliance w/ Germ
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