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POL 2103 E - Intro to International Relations and Global Politics - Joseph Roman - 16 Feb. 26.docx

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Political Science
Mark Salter

XXX = unfinished parts of the notes (perhaps unattainable at this point) POL 2103 E - Intro to International Relations & Global Politics - Joseph Roman - 16 Feb. 26 Managing Conflict: Diplomacy • Representatives of the state who act on the instruction of the home government • Highly formalized & guided by protocols • Protocols establish how interactions should proceed, how to welcome categories of foreign dignitaries, etc. • Protocols define symbols & prestige in order to avoid disagreements • Diplomacy can evolve Changes to Diplomacy 1. Multilateral diplomacy/conference diplomacy • diplomacy among more than 2 actors 2. Technical knowledge • becoming more necessary 3. The role of non-state actors • they act as go-between states, intermediaries, to diplomacy • NGOs becoming more important Role of Diplomacy & the Management of Conflict 1. To send signals • It’s overt & direct • There is always problems of misinterpretation however - Third Golf War: Saddam Hussein thought the US would be ok with them taking over Kuwait • Circumspect strategies - Late 1990s, Canadian potatoes were not allowed in the USA b/c they had a potato wart, so it looked ugly. When US officials came to Canada and ate Canadian potatoes, they were then questioned why there was a ban on them. The ban was subsequently lifted. 2. Bargaining & negotiation • 3. 3rd-party mediation • Power differentials really show their face Disarmament & Arms Control • Arms proliferation contributes to war & its frequency can decrease if there are less available weapons • Disarmament drastically reduces or eliminates weapons • Highly transformative, but the largest stumbling block for disarmament is the global trade in small arms • Arms control seeks to reduce weapons stockpiles or prevent their use Establishing & Theories of Regimes • International organizations (IOs) are the key institutions managing conflict & facilitating co- operation among states • Realist view of IOs argues that they are established advance XXX • Liberals take institutions the most seriously &, as a result, they have developed competing explanations about why IOs emerge Functionalism • Institutions have to prove their usefulness, have to fulfill specific needs • Integration among states occurs as a process of technical co-operation • IOs must be constructed to fulfill particular needs • Citizens realize that their loyalty is misplaced b/c IOs engender co-operation & order, not the national state • Institution-building has to be accompanied by granting authority to a supranational body that is technocratic or scientific, freeing it from politics • Modern states ultimately cannot solve problems that transcend borders Neo-functionalism • Mutual self-interest is what leads into institution building • This then generates spill-over effects, when 1 policy area is taken up on on the supranational area, it’ll affect areas Regime theory • Looking at how states cope with inter-dependance • To cope with interdependence, states form regimes • Regimes are defined as norms, principles, and decision making procedures around which actors’ expectations can converge • Regimes influence outcomes, but they do not alter structures of power International Governmental Organizations (IGOs) 1. Comprised of states & only states 2. Created by treaties that hae been signed by states & thusly have a basis in international law 3. Hold regular meetings attended by delegates from member states 4. Have a permanent headquarters and secretariat 5. Have a permanent bureaucracy that acts in its interests • States use IGOs as linkages for facilitating communication & to maintain a world order The League of Nations • Established after WW1 • Embodied the ideals of freeing the world from war • The League was not intended to be universal • Similar to the COncert of Europe, the League sought to assist with themanagement of a multipolar world • All members agreed to preserve the territorial integrity & political independence of other states • War was a matter of concern for the league The League’s Organization 1. The Assembly • All League members belonged to it • Debated matters of concern for the international community or individual states 2. The Council • Initially composed (supposed to) of 5 permanent members & 4 elected members - US was one of the original 5, but they never actually joined • the Assembly & the Council were the League’s deliberative organs & unanimity was required on matters unrelated to procedure & certain matters 3. The Secretariat • The League’s bureaucracy 4. The Permanent Court of International Justice (PCU) • Established in 1921 to resolve disputes between members of the international community Successes of the League • The League tends to be regarded as a massive failure • However, the Secretariat showed that it was possible to have an effective international civil service XXX Why did the League Fail 1. The UK & France were unwilling to level sanctions against Japan for its 1931 invasion of Manchuria, thereby undermining the Lea
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