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POL 2103 E - Intro to International Relations _ Global Politics - Joseph Roman - 04 Jan. 15.docx

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Department
Political Science
Course
POL2103
Professor
Mark Salter
Semester
Winter

Description
POL 2103 E - Intro to International Relations & Global Politics - Joseph Roman - 04 Jan. 15 Liberal IR Theory The Hardcore of Liberalism - Foundational statement for a liberal theory of IR was made in Robert Keohane & Joseph Nye’s Power & Interdependence - Liberalism has inherent faith in progress b/c people are good & rational & can exercise their faculties - Liberal IR theory likens states to people, i.e. having a unique set of interests - states are capable of good behaviour - Liberal IR theory is a second-image theory, i.e. we can understand the international system by focusing on the domestic level - I.e. It focuses on the domestic level - Juridical equality - Everyone’s equal before the law - Free markets - Liberals prefer free markets b/c they think it’s the best way to generate wealth - They want free markets to bloom - Democracy - According to Liberals, democracy means that if states behave well domestically, they’ll behave well internationally - Liberty - All states should be able to determine their own destiny - Immanuel Kant & Jeremy Bentham are 2 key thinkers for liberal IR theory Liberalism vs. Realism - Liberals are pluralists & recognize that states are diverse from within - Interdependence suggests that a complex world creates connections that cause repercussions elsewhere - Liberals add in that there’s the difficulty for states to isolate themselves b/c things happening elsewhere will inevitably affect them - Realists wouldn’t focus on the above point and just point out that states just look out for themselves - Liberals agree that anarchy exists, but it is not the cause of war - Nobody enforces the international law, and plenty of international laws have already been broken The Strands and Sub-strands of Liberal IR Theory - Structure-centred liberal IR theory focuses on domestic constraints - Actor-centred liberal IR theory focuses on how actors respond to international constraints - Each strand has its own variant of rationalism & constructivism - Rationalism uses deduction & reasoning to arrive at a conclusion - Constructivism looks at how norms become internalized by actors through interacting with other agents Democratic Peace Theory (DPT) - Structure-centred - The social, political, & economic institutions of a state matters - Immanuel Kant as the key thinker - Citizens are risk & cost aware - Politicians wishing to get re-elected will be more unwilling to go to war b/c war is often unpopular - States with liberal democracies have more to lose when they go to war b/c they are often wealthier, so their standard of living would drop farther than other ones - States become peaceful - Shared norms with other democracies increase peacefulness Rationalist & Constructivist DPT - Rationalist DPT - Focuses on a state’s constitutional character - Free & fair elections constrain bellicose politicians - The institutional division of power in a state matters - Constructivist DPT - Wants to find out how democracies view other democracies - Friends & foes are learned through interaction - Which states share norms? Two-level Games - Very actor-centred - Focuses on both the domestic & international sphere - Asks how
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