Class Notes (809,049)
Canada (493,506)
POL2103 (168)

POL 2103 E - Intro to International Relations _ Global Politics - Joseph Roman - 05 Jan. 20.docx

5 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Ottawa
Political Science
Mark Salter

POL 2103 E - Intro to International Relations & Global Politics - Joseph Roman - 05 Jan. 20 Marxism & IR (Almost the entirety of this section is not on exam, but for far below) - Post-positivism - Historical materialism - Antonio Gramsci & Hegemony - The Frankfurt School The Core of Marxism - Historical materialism: we know the world based on how societies produce things - Marxism’s epistemology - The means of production (MOP), i.e. the equipment used to make goods, determines the relations of production (ROP), i.e. how classes relate to each other - The MOP & the ROP are always in tension with each other - The MOP is subject to change & to fully take advantage of this, the ROP has to be transformed - Since capitalism is so dynamic, the MOP are likely to change Base & Superstructure - The MOP & the ROP are the economic base of society, or what Marxists refer to as simply “the base” - Changes in the base lead to wider changes in society - The legal, political, & cultural institutions constitute the superstructure - For Karl Marx (KM), the base is determinate in the final instance - Any change can happen in the superstructure could occur, but is far less important than the base - Yet, the superstructure reflects the patterns of power in society - Power originates in the base Marxism’s Contributions to the Social Sciences - Introduces historical analysis - Marxism as a social science - KM says you can’t take anything for granted - KM says you can understand people by looking at social processes - Organic relations - Marxists are very holistic in their analyses, i.e. nothing can be understood apart from each other, everything is intertwined 1 - Agents & structures cause Marxists to be sceptical of claims about human nature - Agents (people) are able to transform the structures that they live in Marxism’s Explanations of Change - Dialectics: contradictions w/in social formations enable transformations - i.e. the Bourgeoisie & the Proletariat - Changes in class structure cause changes - Forces which need other to exist nonetheless have contradictory interests - Class is seen as the motor of history - Capitalism as a decidedly social system Marx’s Views on Capitalism - Free labour - Labourers can dispose of their labour as they see fit - This freedom is contradicted by the inherent compulsion inherent in capitalism to use labour in order to obtain the necessities of life - i.e. It’s not really free, as everyone has to work to make a living - the moment you can commodify your product, and you can sell it, capitalism takes hold - Life’s necessities are commodified & no longer part of the commons - Capitalism as both progressive & disabling - it gets rid of feudalism - it’s productive, it’s a dynamic social system - Surplus value & exploitation - Capitalism only becomes a reality when labour is applied to natural materials - What’s labour is applied to raw materials, it gains value - the MOP are privately owned Lenin’s Imperialism - V.I. Lenin’s Imperialism, the Highest State of Capitalism - Capitalist countries have an irresistible urge to pursue colonialism, b/c these countries always want economic growth. If they don’t expand, their growth stagnates. - Anew phase of capitalism was marked by the merging of finance and industry, creating giant cartels - Colonialism as the search for new markets for giant cartels 2 - The emergence of a bifurcated system of states: the core (exploiters) and the periphery (the exploited) - Core states use profits from the periphery to buy off its workers - i.e. If the workers are satisfied with their pay, they don’t revolt - Inter-imperialist rivalries erupt during the search for new markets - War has an inherent economic base - That’s why countries go to war The Political Thought
More Less

Related notes for POL2103

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.