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POL 2103 E - Intro to International Relations _ Global Politics - Joseph Roman - 12 Feb. 12.docx

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Political Science
Mark Salter

POL 2103 E - Intro to International Relations & Global Politics - Joseph Roman - 12 Feb. 12 The Concept of Sovereignty - International relations are only conducted by sovereign states - Juridical sovereignty - Sovereignty…(last class?) Principles of Sovereignty 1. Maintain internal & external sovereignty b/c there is no central authority to enforce order 2. Respect other countries’ internal & external sovereignty 3. International law does not trump domestic law - If it did, the country wouldn’t have internal sovereignty The Emergence of the Sovereign State - From the 13th to 16th centuries, absolutist monarchies in Spain, Russia, France, & England were consolidating their political rule - The Reformation of 1517 - Martin Luther’s Ninety-Five Theses is nailed onto the door of the Wittenberg Church to protest the Roman Catholic church’s indulgences - the first direct challenge to papal supremacy - claimed that the role of the Pope was unnecessary, anyone could reach God on their own - triggers a set of religious wars, between the Catholics and the newly invented, the Protestants - The Reformation is the first direct challenge to papal supremacy - Martin Luther’s act triggers wars throughout the largely German-speaking Holy Roman Empire Towards Sovereignty - 1555 Peace of Augsburg - the Prince’s religion would become his subjects’ religion - Religious division of Christendom is made legally permanent w/in the Holy Roman Empire - Cuius region, eius religio - The Peace only applied to the warring parties of the Holy Roman Empire The Thirty Years’ War, 1618-1648 - Bohemians (Protestants) revolt out of fear that they will lose their religious rights upon Catholic Ferdinand II’s succession to the throne of Bohemia and Hungary - Denmark, Sweden, and France interfere in the internal affairs of Bohemia - The Thirty Years’ War ends in 1648 with the signing of the Treaty of Westphalia - the founding document of state sovereignty The Treaty of Westphalia, 1648 - Westphalia establishes the idea of sovereignty & it establishes: 1. A state has the right to conduct its affairs w/o interference from actors outside its borders. 2. A state’s subjects owes it absolute allegiance - Unlike the Peace, Westphalia geo-politically institutionalized the principle of sovereignty for all of continental Europe Consolidating & Spreading the Sovereign State after 1648 - States gain legitimacy by providing order for war-weary Europeans (those tired of war) - Warcraft as statecraft - was was inherently bound with state-making until WWII - The rise of capitalism - brought together labour and capital - many things that were needed for war were also needed for capitalism - Ex: roads, canals - Colonialism - Once colonies wanted independence, they formed states Features of the Newly Emerging System of States 1. Balance of power 2. Self-help system 3. The 1713 Treaty of Utrecht 4. The emergence of great powers The Age of Nationalism - Monarchical claims of legitimacy are challenged, leading to the birth of the idea of the nation - Nationalism: the idea that nations are the principal source of identification demanding loyalty which, in turn, necessitates self-determination - Vertical integration of societies: leaders must be like their people - Horizontal integration: formal equality for all members & “the people” transcends all divisions in a society - 2 types of nationalism: 1) Civic nationalism 2) Ethnic nationalism - Nationalism is a European idea that has to be seen as a double-edged sword: claims of equality eroded while also being invoked to justify European imperialism ...and Liberali
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