POL 2103 E - Intro to International Relations & Global Politics - Joseph Roman - 18 Mar.
From Regional to Global Enemies of Islam
1. Islamists in the 1960s & 1970s view local political regimes as their enemy
2. Nationalist & separatist movements
3. Global jihadism
- Promoted the idea that Muslims were suffering at the hands of Jews and Christians
• War in Afghanistan
• Bonn Agreement of 2001
• UN International Security & Assistance Force (ISAF) deployed to Kabul & taken over by NATO,
which established Provincial Reconstruction Teams
• The need to secure Afghanistan’s borders & establish the Afghan National Army & Afghan
• The Second Gulf War saw Iraq wracked by al-Qaeda-led & inspired insurgencies & sectarian
violence after its invasion by the USA was informed by assumptions
• Osama bin Laden’s death has not affected al-Qaeda operations given that it has decentralized,
but the aim of getting the USA to leave Saudi Arabia has not been accomplished
The Turn to Human Society
1. The rise of normative international relations theory
2. Philosophical traditions of ethics in IR
3. The end of the Cold War
4. The rise of intra-state conflicts
IR’s Normative Turn
• Events in the 1960s & 1970s cause an examination of the morality of violence
- Including the Vietnam War from 1959-1975
• Inter arma silent leges
• Questioned whether or not wars could be justified?
• Absolutist ethics argue that nothing can justify a harmful act, but it offers no way to prevent or
stop harmful acts actually in action
• Jus ad bellum (justice of war) vs. jus in bello (justice in war)
- Former justifying war
- Latter about morality during war, preventing innocents from being harmed
• Crimes against humanity questioned
• Crimes against peace questioned
• Questions emerged on the unequal distribution of resources as a global concern
• What duties are owed by the richer states to the poorer states?
• Normative IR theory (NIRT) grew out of these 2 concerns
• Initial developments in normative theory occurred in the UK What does NIRT Focus on?
1. The ethical dimension between actors on a global scale
2. Moral norms, not prescriptions
3. Evaluating behaviours
4. Examining the relationship between morality & behaviours
Aspects of NIRT
1. Norms matter
2. Understanding who acquires moral standing by interrogating existing assumptions
3. Think that every state actor is a moral agent. They make decisions with large impacts.
NIRTheorists look at the actions they take, & the consequences these may have, i.e.
responsibility, blame, duty, & obligation
• Derived from Immanuel Kant’s principles, of do no harm & that people themselves are an end
• Motives and means have to be good
• Obligations to act a certain way & impartially
• Personally claims ought to be discarded
• Judgements based on the good of the whole
- Act in a way you want others to act towards you
- if you make a rule, is the rule beneficial to all?
• Doctrine of double effect: acts may be allowed if the harm is not direct