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POL 2103 E - Intro to International Relations Global Politics - Joseph Roman - 20 Mar. 12.docx

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Political Science
Joseph Roman

POL 2103 E - Intro to International Relations & Global Politics - Joseph Roman - 20 Mar. 12 Gender & Human Security • Women are targets for deprivation & violence • The status of women affect poverty & the problems of population growth • Education is less • Reproduction rights absent in many places • Access to health care limited Ecological aspects of human security • Increasing scarcity of resources may trigger inter-state warfare • Prospects for environmental refugees placing new pressures on states Urbanization • The growth of cities • 6 billion will be living in urban areas by 2050 • 78.2% of urbanites in the least developed countries reside in slums • Growth of crime & forced child slavery & child prostitution in Third World slums • Access to basic sanitation Migration • Refugees & how they're defined • Are states the only problem? - In Canada, you have to be pursued by the Canadian state to be considered a refugee • Migrant workers & their rights • Internally displaced persons Infections diseases • The role of the World Health Organization (WHO) • The movement of peoples • HIV/AIDS - Problem is the access to drugs - Patents inflate the price extremely disproportionately Debates in the human security agenda • Freedom from fear (FFF) vs. freedom from want (FFW) • FFF focuses on reducing the costs of conflicts on humans • FFW emphasises freeing people from non-military threats, which is closer to the position taken by development economists • FFF & FFW place the individual at the centre of their analysis Critcisms of human security 1 . Human Security is too broad concept 2 . Human security is too moralistic 3 . States can be providers of security - can provide hope 4 . Need to be relativistic when assessing people's security needs Human Rights • Civil & political rights provide for protections against legal abuses by states - These rights are negative rights - The state must refrain from acting/interfering • Economic, social, & cultural rights guarantee access to essential goods & services - These rights are positive rights - Positive rights are the most difficult to realize given governments prefer rights that don't cost anything, as it would mean the government has to provide you with things • The problem with human rights is that it is unclear how to implement them • Enforcement is non-existent Humanitarian intervention (HI) • The Holocaust led to the recognition of states as threats to human life • Legal arguments for HI point to the UN Charter and customs in international law. • Moral arguments appeal to duties to intervene and protect populations, changing the conception of state sovereignty • States must protect their populations & when they cannot or will not do so, sovereignty is foregone • Other moral arguments point to a common humanity Problems with HI • Any state could invoke HI to justify a violation of sovereignty • Measuring success: short-term vs. long-term goals Responsibility to protect (R2P) • R2P is the most recent attempt to strengthen the framework for HI • R2P originated in a 2001 report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS) called The Responsibility to Protect • The ICISS sought to reconcile state sovereignty & human rights by determining what principles should govern the protection of peoples • R2P was adopted by the UN at its 2005 World Summit, which was a follow-up to its 2000 Millennium Summit that discussed the organization's role in the 21st century
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