POL 2103: Lecture #4 Sept 24 2012
T. A: Isabelle: 559 KING EDWARD, First door on the right 121 pm
Next Monday Oct1
1 Page single spaced Reaction paper
Slippery slop to preventive war
1Summary 1rst article outline main arguments, core ideas.
2 summary 2 article , main arguments, core ideas.
3 my position, my verdict , who is right who is wrong and why?
Based on these foundationoptimization of the world wealth is a function of a free trade
The freedom of exchange(capital, labor, goods, services, From this perspective the nation states are not the only principal actors
the state must exercise the function of a guarantor for trade and private property.
The must important actors are the individuals/citizens
Key concepts: the states are just one actor, among many others (individuals, groups, Bill gates , Bono,
IOs are not only intergovernmental organization
But also NGOs, MNCs (including terrorist organizations.
Transnational actors could and should shape the international landscape
International relations may represent a positive sum game (everyone is a winners)
IR is not only based on the concept of power (peace/conflict) but also includes economic, social and
there is a place for morality in the IR realm
an international order could be achieved through consistent multilateral efforts.
Liberalism’s main theme :
How to reconcile order (security) and justice (equality)
William Penn (1693)advocated a “diet” or Parliament of Europe:
qualified majority voting 75% of the delegates
separated “wills” of the states to a general will of the states acting collectively.
General Assumptions of the Liberal Internationalism
“Self restraint, moderation, compromise and peace.” (Hoffmann 1987) XVIIIXIX c. Immanuel Kant, Jeremy Bentham
subjecting the states to a system of legal rights
individuals are inadvertently promoting the public
“invisible hand” of the market
absence of world government
Idealism: 1900s 1930s
Objective – prevention of war
Departure from Lib. Internationalists:
Critical about capitalism/imperialism as
a direct reason for conflict
Peace and prosperity required “consciously
W. Wilson’s 14 points: “a general association of
nations must be formed”
I. Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at, after which there shall be no private international
understandings of any kind but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the public view.
II. Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas, outside territorial waters, alike in peace and in war,
except as the seas may be closed in whole or in part by international action for the enforcement of
international covenants. III. The removal, so far as possible, of all economic barriers and the establishment of an equality of trade
conditions among all the nations consenting to the peace and associating themselves for its maintenance.
IV. Adequate guarantees given and taken that national armaments will be reduced to the lowest point
consistent with domestic safety.
V. A free, openminded, and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims, based upon a strict
observance of the principle that in determining all such questions of sovereignty the interests of the
populations concerned must have equal weight with the equitable claims of the government whose title is to
VI. The evacuation of all Russian territory and such a settlement of all questions affecting Russia as will
secure the best and freest cooperation of the other nations of the world in obtaining for her an unhampered
and unembarrassed opportunity for the independent determination of her own political development and
national policy and assure her of a sincere welcome into the society of free nations under institutions of her
own choosing; and, more than a welcome, assistance also of every kind that she may need and may
herself desire. The treatment accorded Russia by her sister nations in the months to come will be the acid
test of their good will, of their comprehension of her needs as distinguished from their own interests, and of
their intelligent and unselfish sympathy.
VII. Belgium, the whole world will agree, must be evacuated and restored, without any attempt to limit the
sovereignty which she enjoys in common with all other free nations. No other single act will serve as this
will serve to restore confidence among the nations in the laws which they have themselves set and
determined for the government of their relations with one another. Without this healing act the whole
structure and validity of international law is forever impaired.
VIII. All French territory should be freed and the invaded po