POL 2103: Lecture #12 Nov 12 2012h
NATO and Kosovo, 1999
Serbs, Macedonian Orthodox Christians
Croats, Slovenians – Catholic
Bosniaks, Albanians – Muslim
three official languages of Yugoslavia were SerboCroatian, Slovenian, and Macedonian
SerboCroatian: two versions Eastern and Western
Latin alphabet in Croatia
Cyrillic alphabet in Serbia and Montenegro
Tensions between the two communities had been simmering throughout the 20th century and had
occasionally erupted into major violence, particularly during the WWI and WWII.
Tito repressed nationalist manifestations throughout Yugoslavia, seeking to ensure that no Yugoslav
republic or nationality gained dominance over the others.
In particular, the power of Serbia—the largest and most populous republic—was diluted by the
establishment of autonomous governments in the province of Voivodina in the north of Serbia and Kosovo
in the south.
Kosovo's predominately ethnic Albanian settlement (since at least the 1921 census)
In 1974 Yugoslav constitution granted an expanded set of political rights.
Kosovo's political status improved.
Along with Vojvodina, it was declared a province and gained many of the powers of a fullyfledged republic:
a seat on the federal presidency and its own assembly, police force and national bank. Power exercised by the Communist Party, but devolved mainly to ethnic Albanian communists.
Tito's death 1980
a long period of political instability, worsened by growing economic crisis and nationalist unrest.
1981 Albanian students rioted demanding that Kosovo should become the seventh republic of Yugoslavia.
Fear of Greater Albania
Riot police and the army
state of emergency
Up to 1,000 killed and another 4,200 were imprisoned
Serbian Academy of Science and Arts ( SANU , from its Serbian initials, САНУ) conducted a survey
under Serbs who had left Kosovo in 1985/1986.
The Memorandum paid special attention to Kosovo, arguing that the province's Serbs were being subjected
to "physical, political, legal and cultural genocide" in an "open and total war".
The Memorandum's authors claimed that 200,000 Serbs had moved out of the province over the previous
twenty years and warned that there would soon be none left "unless things change radically."
Slobodan Milošević (1990–1996)
in 1990 Milošević revoked the autonomy of Kosovo and Vojvodina and replaced locally chosen leaders with
A new Serb curriculum was imposed in all higher education in Kosovo
Rejected by Albanians creating their parallel education system.
Albanian cultural autonomy drastically reduced.
The only Albanianlanguage newspaper, Ridilin , was banned and TV and radio broadcasts in Albanian
Albanian was no longer an official language of the province.
“Kosovo police state". Poverty and unemployment reached up to 80%
Violence in the 1990s
United States described the KLA as "terrorist“ organization.
The U.S. referred to the KLA as terrorists.
1998 change of terminology
House Committee on International Relations "while KLA has committed 'terrorist acts,' it has 'not been
classified legally by the U.S. Government as a terrorist organization.'"
Ethnic cleansing campaign
300,000 Kosovo Albanians fled into neighboring Albania and Macedonia.
By April, the United Nations reported that 850,000 people the vast majority of them Albanians had fled their
NATO's bombing campaign March 24 June 11, 1999
up to 1,000 aircraft operating mainly from bases in Italy and aircraft carriers stationed in the Adriatic .
Tomahawk cruise missiles extensively used, fired from aircraft, ships and submarines.
All of the NATO members involved to some degree.
NATO aircraft flew over 38,000 combat missions.
the biggest foreign US military base since the Vietnam War.
US military engineers took control of 320 kilometres of roads and 75 bridges in the surrounding area for
military use. Camp Bondsteel 25 kilometres of roads and over 300 buildings
Camp Bondsteel surrounded by 14 kilometres of earth and concrete barriers, 84 kilometres of concertina
wire and 11 watch towers.
It is so big that it has downtown, midtown and uptown districts, retail outlets, 24hour sports halls, a chapel,
library and the state of the art bestequipped military hospital anywhere in Europe.
US personnel – 7 000 troops.
Camp Bondsteel 55 Black Hawk and Apache helicopters
has no aircraft landing strip
the location chosen for its capacity to expand.
There are suggestions that it could replace the US airforce base at Aviano in Italy.
General contractor – Halliburton Oil
KRB Halliburton subsidiary provides all the support services to Camp Bondsteel.
600,000 gallons of water perday,
electricity to supply a city of 25,000
supply centre with 14,000 product lines.
It washes 1,200 bags of laundry,
supplies 18,000 meals per day and operates 95 percent of the rail and airfield facilities. It also provides the
camps firefighting service. Brown & Root are now the largest employers in Kosovo, with more than 5,000
local Kosovan Albanians and another 15,000 on its books
It also provides the camps firefighting service.
KRB now the largest employer in Kosovo
5,000 local Kosovan Albanians
Another 15,000 on its books
Before NATO bombing of Yugoslavia in 1999, the Washington Post insisted, “With the MiddleEast increasingly fragile, we will need bases and fly over rights in the Balkans to protect
Caspian Sea oil.”
Trade & Development Agency:
The Trade & Development Agency (TDA now known as the USTDA) was given the task of overseeing this
project, known as the South Balkan Development Initiative (SBDI) of 1996.
This was an agency which had been set up in 1981 to deal with just such a situation.
Following are some of its aims, quoted from its reports of the years 2000 & 2001:
(c) “TDA’s strategy is to identify those areas in which US companies are highly competitive rail, aviation,
power, and oil & gas”; and
(d) “The longest lasting impact we can have is to bring US technology & investment to the Balkans through
our private sector”
“Top representatives of Macedonia, Bulgaria and Albania met on Tuesday in Sofia to ink
a memorandum of understanding with Ted Ferguson, president of the AMBO (Albania