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IR Paradigms Notes.doc

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Political Science
Ivaylo Grouev

International RelationsParadigmwhat is to be observed and scrutinized the kind of questions that are supposed to be asked and probed for answers in relation to this subject how these questions are to be structured how the results of scientific investigations should be interpretedhow is an experiment to be conducted and what equipment is available to conduct the experimentIR ParadigmPolitics at the Global level The decisions of governments concerning their actions toward other governments Activities of international organizationsGlobal tradeArmed conflictsInternational financial institutions Global regional environmental issues Global traffic goods services people GlobalizationCivic protest movements IR scholars want to understand why and how international events occur in the way they doTraditionallyIR must answer the question of war and peace Subfield of Political science International security studies Comes from a diplomatic history b international law Waron the conditions for the establishment of a durable peace on the understanding of mechanisms of the political control over a state sponsored violenceIRs objective was to replace the chronological approach of diplomatic history with a more sociological vision where the focus of the IR research would be to study the influence of the deep forces of the behavior of the international actors History Identify the unifying elements tendencies Identify single factorsevents of a historical continuity LawAnalyse the tensions between actors and new principles of the international community Analyse the challenges of the application of these principles SociologyAnalyse the society from within Analyse the social forces having an impact of the international community EconomyAnalyse the relations between power and autonomy of the political authority in the context of an increasing interdependenceThe InterState RealmRealm where the states try to maximize their interests using dialogue and the acceptance of common rules established as a result of a mutual consensus The International Organizations RealmThe process of the intergovernmental cooperation via international organizations The success of the new type of international cooperationEuropean Union challenges the traditional premise of the sovereignty of the nationsstate Analyse the mechanisms of a supranational integration The Transnational Society Realm Civic movements Environment Religions Migrations Human rightsPeace movements The World Economy RealmAnalyse the process of the Globalisation Evolution of the international community under the influence of the new marketsNew approach visvis the traditional actions by the states Dominant ParadigmsRealistLiberalPluralistCriticalRealismPrincipal AuthorsRaymond Aron 19051983Edward H Carr18921982Hans Morgenthau 1904 1980George Kennan1904 2005 Henry Kissinger1923 Susan Strange1923 1988Philosophical TraditionNiccolo Machiavelli 14691527Thomas Hobbes15881679Hans Morgenthaua founding proponent of political realism remains the central figure in international relations scholarship of the 20th century observed that nations have interests which are furthered through the use of power to accumulate more power military economic and political alliances to further new interests regionalization globalizationsaw clearly that mass communication is an essential element of foreign policy for a democracy or even a totalitarian statereconciled universal principles human rights with a recalcitrant reality national sovereignty by representing their relationship as a dialectical tensionMorgenthaus Six Principles of Realism1 Politics like society in general is governed by objective laws that have their roots in human nature which is unchanging therefore it is possible to develop a rational theory that reflects these objective laws 2 The main signpost that helps political realism to find its way through the landscape of international politics is the concept of interest defined in terms of power This concept provides the link between trying to understand international politics and the facts to be understood It sets politics as an autonomous sphere of action and understanding apart from other spheres such as economics understood in terms of interest defined as wealth ethics aesthetics or religion 3 Realism assumes that interest defined as power is an objective category which is universally valid but not with a meaning that is fixed once and for all Power is the control of man over man 4 Political realism is aware of the moral significance of political action It is also aware of the tension between the moral command and the requirements of successful political action
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