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UN and Humanitarian Intervention.doc

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Political Science
Ivaylo Grouev

United NationsHistoryWestphalia Peace Treaty 1648Establishment of the moderns state system three principles1 Linear border2 State monopoly3 SovereigntyThe Hague Peace conferences 1899 and 1907 building a world based on law and orderW Wilsons 14 pointsthe establishment of the League of Nations League of Nations three permanent organs 1 The Assembly Assembly elected the judges of the World Court 2 The Council3 The SecretariatTwo semi autonomous bodies1 The Permanent Court of International Justice2 The International Labour Organisation same budgets as the League of NationsObjectives1 To achieve international peace and security2 To promote international cooperationFirst testsManchurian Case 1931Japan invasion independent state of Manchukuo moral condemnation Italy invaded Ethiopia in 1934 For the first time economic sanctions against Italy of 54 League members 50 voted short lived after Italys victory in 1936United NationsThe United Nations UN replaced it after the end of the war and inherited a number of agencies and organizations founded by the LeagueAtlantic Charter August 14 1941The Atlantic Charter formed the basis of the United Nations Charter they believe that all of the nations of the world for realistic as well as spiritual reasons must come to the abandonment of the use of forcethe establishment of a wider and permanent system of general security that the disarmament of such nations is essential They will likewise aid and encourage all other practicable measures which will lighten for peaceloving peoples the crushing burden of armaments Moscow Declaration October 1943 USA Great Britain USSR China Pledge to wartime cooperation the necessity of establishing at the earliest practicable date a general international organisationsThe Dumbarton Oaks Conference Washington DC USSR USA UK negotiationsSeptember 1944USA UK China negotiationsSeptemberOctober 1944 Elaborated the purpose membership structure of the future UN Yalta ConferenceFebruary 411 1945 a comprehensive and unlimited veto power in the Security Council a concession from 16 to two republics Byelorussia and Ukraine Agreement on Trusteeship and territories overseen by the League of Nations Sponsoring an UN Conference on International Organisation in San Francisco on April 25 1945 San Francisco ConferenceIn April 1945 representatives of 50 countries met in San Francisco at the United Nations Conference on International Organization to draw up the United Nations Charter freedom of discussion voting equality sustentative decision making by a twothird voteincreased decision making power by smaller states US Senate approved the Charter on July 1945Truman ratified the Statute of the International Court in August 1945The Organization officially came into existence on 24 October 1945 when the Charter had been ratified by China France the Soviet Union the United Kingdom the United States and a majority of other signatories United Nations Day24 October Purpose of UN1 International peace and security2 Friendly relations among nations 3 Cooperation in solving international problems4 A centre for harmonizing the actions of nations UN Charterits Charter its chapters and articles constitute a treaty and are legally binding on the signatories Article 103 of the Charter stipulates that if a member state finds its obligations under the Charter conflict with duties under any other international agreements they must place their Charter obligations first setting out the rights and obligations of Member States and establishing the Organizations organs and procedures Set out the rights and obligations of Member StatesEstablish the United Nations organs and proceduresCodifies the Major Principles of International RelationsPrinciples1 Sovereign equality to all members2 Good faith fulfillment of the Charter obligations 3 Peaceful settlements of international disputes
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