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POL2104 (60)
Lecture

L11 - Development and Underdevelopment
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Department
Political Science
Course
POL2104
Professor
Joseph Roman
Semester
Winter

Description
March 25, 2014 Development and Underdevelopment 1. Conceptualizing development and underdevelopment 2. Development as a discourse 3. Historical legacies of colonialism and decolonization 4. The role of the state 5. Alternative forms of development What is Development and Underdevelopment? • Arguments that the ideas of “development” and “underdevelopment” emerged during the Enlightenment era or after World War II • The idea, nonetheless, is that knowledge, reason, and expertise could overcome the problems facing societies – constant room for improvement • What did not resemble Western Europe and the USAwas a problem in need of a solution -or a solution in need of a problem • Development as Eurocentric • Notions of “traditional” societies connote a need to intervene • Development as teleology • Development is inherently discursive and subject to constant redefinition due to the relationship between power and knowledge • Problem of underdevelopment tends to be confined to the Third World • National development I the focus • Nothing is predictable • For example,, in the 1950s, sub-SaharanAfrican states were held up as the future for development, not the basket cases in EastAsia Creating Modern Development • Modern development emerged after World War II • Adeveloped economy was one which experienced economic growth • Modernity as development • Progress could be measured based on GDP growth • Growth would solve all the problems present in an underdeveloped country • “Development” has to be seen as a normative term, though • It is contextual and as a term, it expands Modernization Theory • Traditional societies versus modern societies • Linear trajectories of development and growth • Underdeveloped countries would become developed as they would mimic the patterns found in Western Europe and the USA • W. W. Rostow’s The Stages of Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto argued that all countries go through the following stages of growth: (1) traditional; (2) pre-takeoff; (3) takeoff; (4) maturity; and (5) mass consumption Reactions to Modernization Theory • Theories of dependency • World systems theory developed to explain the relations between the core and the periphery • The core drains wealth from the periphery • Connections are based on capitalist relations of exchange • “Dependency” is defined as an economy that cannot find its own dynamic within the broad world economy • Dependent economies have dualistic economies Beyond Economic Growth: Expanding the Concept of Development • Economic growth does not capture the full range of problems that may be associated with underdevelopment • Basic NeedsApproach argued that the role of states should be expanded to deliver public services • Amartya Sen’s Development as Freedom • Growth is not the same thing as development • Economic growth is important, but it is a means and not an end • States need to tax activities in order to provide the physical and social infrastructures that keep people alive • Economic development should include things that people cannot do for themselves • Entitlements to enable people to develop their capacities • Development as freedom means being free from starvation, preventable diseases, etc. • The potential to do is not the same thing as actually doing Thinking Historically about Development and Underdevelopment • The effects of colonization on developmental trajectories do matter • Colonization and then decolonization did affect the relations of the global economy • Yet, for many critics of development and underdevelopment, the continuing problem of the latter is a result of the continued and continuing domination of the Third World by the First World • First World is treated as the exploiter and the Third World is treated as the exploited • “Development” as neo-colonialism • European imperialism continues through development • Developmental programs are designed to maintain the subordination of the Third World • Third World states need to reclaim their economies from external control, which was overwhelming them • Import substitution industrialization (ISI) strategies as a panacea to this • Theories of development, however, assume that development is about national growth • Developed economies can have and have had dualistic economies • The experiences of today’s underdeveloped countries may not, in fact, be so different from that of today’s developed countries • The blame laid on colonialism ignores the nature of exploitation in the Third World, e.g. local elites monopolize resources and oppose labor’s political action • The extent of European imperialism is often exaggerated in terms of its geographic scope and length • Some areas were only colonialized for brief periods of time and others by non-Europeans, e.g. the Ottomans in the Middle East and Japan in Korea • Colonialism was experienced in Europe too, i.e. the Habsburgs and the Russian Empire • While colonialism did support the development of some First World countries, this is not the case everywhere • Nature of European imperialism varied too, e.g. British imperialism was far more benign than the more vicious Portuguese imperialism • Development of productive forces has been trans-local, save for the USAbecause of its unique historical circumstances • Elites are generally networked into the global economy and they are not as locally situated as they are often assumed to be • Production is transnational and less indigenous than otherwise assumed • The point of all developmental projects has been to export capital, including ISI strategies • Some classes simply have no interest in developing their country and this is not peculiar to the Third World, e.g. Canada’s stunted industrial development • Existing classes may very well fear the rise of other classes • National development was not the purview of modernization theory as decolonized states themselves focused on national development • Rise of sovereign statehood thr
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