Class Notes (836,153)
Canada (509,662)
POL2104 (60)

L11 - Development and Underdevelopment

8 Pages
Unlock Document

Political Science
Joseph Roman

March 25, 2014 Development and Underdevelopment 1. Conceptualizing development and underdevelopment 2. Development as a discourse 3. Historical legacies of colonialism and decolonization 4. The role of the state 5. Alternative forms of development What is Development and Underdevelopment? • Arguments that the ideas of “development” and “underdevelopment” emerged during the Enlightenment era or after World War II • The idea, nonetheless, is that knowledge, reason, and expertise could overcome the problems facing societies – constant room for improvement • What did not resemble Western Europe and the USAwas a problem in need of a solution -or a solution in need of a problem • Development as Eurocentric • Notions of “traditional” societies connote a need to intervene • Development as teleology • Development is inherently discursive and subject to constant redefinition due to the relationship between power and knowledge • Problem of underdevelopment tends to be confined to the Third World • National development I the focus • Nothing is predictable • For example,, in the 1950s, sub-SaharanAfrican states were held up as the future for development, not the basket cases in EastAsia Creating Modern Development • Modern development emerged after World War II • Adeveloped economy was one which experienced economic growth • Modernity as development • Progress could be measured based on GDP growth • Growth would solve all the problems present in an underdeveloped country • “Development” has to be seen as a normative term, though • It is contextual and as a term, it expands Modernization Theory • Traditional societies versus modern societies • Linear trajectories of development and growth • Underdeveloped countries would become developed as they would mimic the patterns found in Western Europe and the USA • W. W. Rostow’s The Stages of Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto argued that all countries go through the following stages of growth: (1) traditional; (2) pre-takeoff; (3) takeoff; (4) maturity; and (5) mass consumption Reactions to Modernization Theory • Theories of dependency • World systems theory developed to explain the relations between the core and the periphery • The core drains wealth from the periphery • Connections are based on capitalist relations of exchange • “Dependency” is defined as an economy that cannot find its own dynamic within the broad world economy • Dependent economies have dualistic economies Beyond Economic Growth: Expanding the Concept of Development • Economic growth does not capture the full range of problems that may be associated with underdevelopment • Basic NeedsApproach argued that the role of states should be expanded to deliver public services • Amartya Sen’s Development as Freedom • Growth is not the same thing as development • Economic growth is important, but it is a means and not an end • States need to tax activities in order to provide the physical and social infrastructures that keep people alive • Economic development should include things that people cannot do for themselves • Entitlements to enable people to develop their capacities • Development as freedom means being free from starvation, preventable diseases, etc. • The potential to do is not the same thing as actually doing Thinking Historically about Development and Underdevelopment • The effects of colonization on developmental trajectories do matter • Colonization and then decolonization did affect the relations of the global economy • Yet, for many critics of development and underdevelopment, the continuing problem of the latter is a result of the continued and continuing domination of the Third World by the First World • First World is treated as the exploiter and the Third World is treated as the exploited • “Development” as neo-colonialism • European imperialism continues through development • Developmental programs are designed to maintain the subordination of the Third World • Third World states need to reclaim their economies from external control, which was overwhelming them • Import substitution industrialization (ISI) strategies as a panacea to this • Theories of development, however, assume that development is about national growth • Developed economies can have and have had dualistic economies • The experiences of today’s underdeveloped countries may not, in fact, be so different from that of today’s developed countries • The blame laid on colonialism ignores the nature of exploitation in the Third World, e.g. local elites monopolize resources and oppose labor’s political action • The extent of European imperialism is often exaggerated in terms of its geographic scope and length • Some areas were only colonialized for brief periods of time and others by non-Europeans, e.g. the Ottomans in the Middle East and Japan in Korea • Colonialism was experienced in Europe too, i.e. the Habsburgs and the Russian Empire • While colonialism did support the development of some First World countries, this is not the case everywhere • Nature of European imperialism varied too, e.g. British imperialism was far more benign than the more vicious Portuguese imperialism • Development of productive forces has been trans-local, save for the USAbecause of its unique historical circumstances • Elites are generally networked into the global economy and they are not as locally situated as they are often assumed to be • Production is transnational and less indigenous than otherwise assumed • The point of all developmental projects has been to export capital, including ISI strategies • Some classes simply have no interest in developing their country and this is not peculiar to the Third World, e.g. Canada’s stunted industrial development • Existing classes may very well fear the rise of other classes • National development was not the purview of modernization theory as decolonized states themselves focused on national development • Rise of sovereign statehood thr
More Less

Related notes for POL2104

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.