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Lecture 2: The State

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Political Science
Dominique Arel

POL2104 B 10-SEP-12: THE STATE The State: An entity recognized as sovereign by other states and by the UN legally. - There are currently 193 states recognized by the UN. Exceptions include the Vatican, Taiwan, and Kosovo. - Some territories have special status that are not officially a state (e.g., Palestine, North Cyprus), while others have broken away from the main State but are not currently recognized as independent (e.g., Abkazia from Georgia). State vs. Nation: Equivalence in terms, not standardized based on administrative reasons of each, but legally speaking, they have different meanings. Waves of State Creation: Democratization/transformation of regimes (falls of multinational federations/Empires) - Post WWI: The fall of Russian, Austrian and Ottoman Empires - Post WWii: French, English, Portuguese - Post Cold War: Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia Social science definition of the State: Max Weber defined it as an entity which upholds the claim to the monopoly of the legitimate use of force in the enforcement of its order. Monopoly: Tilly defines it as the elimination of rivals externally and internally (Prince of Moscow defeated rivals from other historic cities that then grouped together as part of Russia). - External and internal are disputed terms dependent on the story teller’s point of view. - Monopoly created through establishment of a standing army/autonomous military power that can reduce reliance on power of other players. - Resource extraction is also important (done through taxation of the public) requiring a bureaucracy or some organization of a State) as it leads to administrative capacity of the State to acquire means to hold the monopoly. - Monopolies should be identifiable and accountable (however, with merky monopolies i.e., paramilitaries, the centralized order is unclear) and so extracting resources is not synonymous with confiscating them. There must be a process of negotiation (rights and responsibilities).
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