10-SEP-12: THE STATE
An entity recognized as sovereign by other states and by the UN legally.
- There are currently 193 states recognized by the UN. Exceptions include the Vatican,
Taiwan, and Kosovo.
- Some territories have special status that are not officially a state (e.g., Palestine, North
Cyprus), while others have broken away from the main State but are not currently
recognized as independent (e.g., Abkazia from Georgia).
State vs. Nation:
Equivalence in terms, not standardized based on administrative reasons of each, but legally
speaking, they have different meanings.
Waves of State Creation:
Democratization/transformation of regimes (falls of multinational federations/Empires)
- Post WWI: The fall of Russian, Austrian and Ottoman Empires
- Post WWii: French, English, Portuguese
- Post Cold War: Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia
Social science definition of the State:
Max Weber defined it as an entity which upholds the claim to the monopoly of the legitimate
use of force in the enforcement of its order.
Monopoly: Tilly defines it as the elimination of rivals externally and internally (Prince of Moscow
defeated rivals from other historic cities that then grouped together as part of Russia).
- External and internal are disputed terms dependent on the story teller’s point of view.
- Monopoly created through establishment of a standing army/autonomous military power
that can reduce reliance on power of other players.
- Resource extraction is also important (done through taxation of the public) requiring a
bureaucracy or some organization of a State) as it leads to administrative capacity of the
State to acquire means to hold the monopoly.
- Monopolies should be identifiable and accountable (however, with merky monopolies
i.e., paramilitaries, the centralized order is unclear) and so extracting resources is not synonymous with confiscating them. There must be a process of negotiation (rights and