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Lecture 4

Lecture 4 - The Republic III, IV & V

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Political Science
Sophie Bourgault

Oct. 10, 2013 MIDTERM (Antigone – Apology - Book I-V Republic) Part A: Antigone – Apology essays -Creon’s approach to politics -the accusations made to Socrates (summary and info) Part B: Republic *STRONG THESIS STATEMENT AND PRESENTATION OF ARGUMENTS THE REPUBLIC (BOOK 3-5)  Is about education (not so much about politics)  The soul of the city 1. Music/Poetry (BK III)  Functions to be played by music  The education of the child should begin with the soul  Their care givers are those responsible for this education  First few years are the most important because that phase will determine who they become; good attitude towards law, their elders, the city, the gods, etc.  Music is this powerful tool – state should censor wet-nurses and poetry  No stories about death and fearing the gods, no images of violence or cruelty  The beginning of any process is most important; especially for something young and tender; most malleable (377b)  Education should begin at a young age when minds and young and impressionable  Ideas that are imprinted; patterns of self control, courage, beauty, anything that will encourage virtue, intellectual curiosity, attachment and dedication to the city  The rest should be purged  Stories about greedy citizens, gods that lie and cheat. Those promoting falsehood are to be kicked out of the city  Emotional and educational development  Children raised by the state  378b – why we should purge – because the young cannot distinguish what is allegorical from what isn’t.  What should be allowed – stories about the gods (379-382); 1) a god can only be the cause of good things; 2) a god is always consistent 3) a god does not deceive or speak falsely  The gods have no needs for lie and deception, they are perfect beings  No stories that create fear of death should be permitted – they will grow up afraid to be soldiers  Create people that can control their desires in the face of temptation; money, sex, food, power.  Self control in citizens and soldiers – always fragile – even the philosophers kings are capable of giving in to temptations  Socrates is the only one Plato mentions, who is capable of resisting all temptations  What style should good music have?  Bad music = bad politics  FUNCTIONS OF MUSIC st  1 - Early childhood matters most for moral character  Best tool to shape the minds of future soldiers and citizens  Music goes straight to the soul  401d – Socrates tells Glaucon why education, music and poetry are important – permeates the soul more than anything else; bringing it grace…  Music is a way to tune the soul, put it in harmony  Prerequisite for all future learning; mathematics, history, etc. nd  2 – music possesses a healing function – has the ability to cure the soul and the mind  Children are restless, use music and dance as methods of teaching  Music provides the tools for developing proper judgment  Aesthetic judgment used to judge music and politics  Apply what is learned through the arts in politics (402)  Transfer the good taught to children into the realm of politics  Good music may not necessarily make you a good person, but it is necessary to becoming a good person.  Music can be used as a tool to foster unity, loyalty, and great care for the city  Self-improvement  Who should be in charge? On what basis are we to judge the best -aux (soldiers) -guardians (ruling class) 2. The noble lie: 2 purposes *Plato on truth/lies…tension here?  The myth of the metals  414c – in the best case the story would persuade even the rulers and those in the city  Phoenicians tale in which all members of the city are raised by mother earth – experiences and knowledge are a dream  1 - Earth a
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