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POL 2108 A - Modern Political Thought I - Guy Côté - 21 Mar. 18.docx

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Political Science
Guy- Serge Cote

POL 2108 A - Modern Political Thought I - Guy Côté - 21 Mar. 18 Montesquieu • promoter of Determinism - says that our personalities are derived from our social climates, environments, - human nature is determined • He talks about 3 different regimes, each with their pros & cons • Republic (democracy/aristocracy) - to him, democracy does not exactly mean that everyone participates in politics, but love of the republic. - To be able to participate in this democracy, it depends on what you own and your virtue (love of Republic). Virtue is attained by education, which will teach you to love your country and its laws, patriotism. - He thinks that if democracy was open to everyone, it could lead to mediocrity, since not everyone is good in politics. He would be elitist in this sense. - To him, the basis of a democracy is the nearly equal distribution of money. - Since everyone’s equal, everyone shares interests and goals, and he characterizes democracy as an elimination of individual interests, that everyone works for the state. This promotes state stability. - He says democracy is best only for small states, i.e. Canada would not be good with a democracy. B/c of regional disparities, it’d be very difficult to ensure equal distribution - Since there is always a plurality of opinions on what the public good is, a perfect democracy is basically impossible - As for aristocracy, the elite, those with the most virtue and knowledge of the common good, would be in power. They’re basically the ones who advise the sovereign • Monarchy - A single person makes and implements the laws, decides everything basically. He punishes when the law is not respected. - Monarchy is not governed by virtue, but by honor, which leaves very little space for equality. Honor is described as the characteristic in differentiating yourselves from the others, to be the best and respected. Therefore, monarchy is characterised by competition. - The idea of the public good is put aside for honor. If you want to succeed, you need honor. - Luxury dominates the society. You sho
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