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POL 2108 A - Modern Political Thought I - Guy Côté - 22 Mar. 20.docx

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Political Science
Guy- Serge Cote

POL 2108 A - Modern Political Thought I - Guy Côté - 22 Mar. 20 Jean Jacques Rousseau • 1712-1778 • One of the important philosophers that will inspire the French revolution but died before it • Inspired by the greeks • initiated the movement of counter-enlightenment - enlightenment is shedding light onto the darkness - disapproval of the control of the church, the rise of reason - science against religion and superstitions - locke and bacon were inspired by the enlightenment - he’s questioning the importance we give to the enlightenment - the relationship between men is not today based passions or emotions but calculations for self-interest - self-interest destroys trust between people • For the state of nature, the social contract: - men was born free & everywhere he is in chains. Society is a ball of chains. Civil society = chaining of humans, making them slaves to law, making them lose - in the state of nature, everyone is free - since everyone is free, the state of nature is unjust, just like society - He thinks civil society has gone too far by taking away freedoms & by taking away happiness - Rousseau talks about happiness similar to the greeks - He gives more importance to self-fulfillment over self-preservation - he says society exists for chance at self-fulfillment, not self-preservation - he says modern society rejects virtues and values money instead - he thinks it’s impossible to live together if there’s inequalities, and money is the source for them, which promotes self-interest - sciences/arts also creates inequalities, since they help you gain money - Unlike Bacon, who approves of a small elite group as the only people with science, Rousseau would rather have everyone being able to afford education to get science, the the fact is that not all people can access science due to being able to pay for school - So Rousseau thinks that the few people that could afford education promotes inequalities - he says trade brings more money, i.e. inequalities, and is a regression of society and not actually advancing it - the problem with scarcity, the ric
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