In Kant's republic: people are the authors of the laws. These laws are what people, as being in
rational beings, would recognize as being in their best interest.
Kant seeks representative government
But his definition of this is very vague.
Kant: if we're really going to protect the freedom of citizens, we have to secure relations between
states as well as relations between the people within the state.
Naturally led them to consider international politics.
Most of the time, states are in the condition of war. Doesn't mean they're always fighting
each other, but are always on alert and ready to fight each other
There is war if there is threat of the outbreak of war-we're on war footing during that entire
Perpetual peace is also to get rid of the threat of war, not just war itself.
o He thinks this is the crucial factor to securing freedom. There will be no security
within a state if it is always on war footing
The bigger the threat, the more obvious that we see it. The bigger the threat, the more civil
liberties get taken away.
o Believes citizens should never be used as means, only as ends (ie, conscription which
explicitly uses people as means, since by forcing people to go into the army, their
autonomy is being taken away from them.
Has a sense of arbitrariness of international boundaries
o Believes all humans are from the same globe, which part of it we’re in happened by
chance, and every part of it should be accessible.
o We must recognize that true protection of human right will require their protection
across the globe
Right, not rights- the principle of right requires that the actions of anyone makes
it so that it is in agreement with the actions of those around them so that their
actions will be harmonized.
Standing armies shall be abolished
o While that may seem wildly optimistic, his reasoning is this: if a country looks at
their neighbor and sees that they're building an army (especially a bigger one), isn't
there a natural pressure to keep up with them?- Arms race
o The build up of arms is goading other countries into keeping up and this itself is
counterproductive to peace
No independent state shall come under the dominion of another by inheritance, purchase or
o To do t