Feb. 27, 2014
Trans-Saharan Slave Trade
II – The growth of a trade continues (VII – XVI century)
Trafficking and pre-Islamic slavery
a) First current most important = linking the east coast ofAfrica
Africans inArabia of the Prophet
Intensification of Muslim Arab slave trade
• After the death of Muhammad the MuslimArab slave trade was intensified, this
specifically with the introduction of the Caliphate
• TheArab conquests and the spread of Islam had decisive consequences on the
development of trafficking and slavery of blacks.
• Legitimization of slavery
• This conferred the status of Jihad to any war and more opportunities to capture Slaves
• The jizya (tax, tribute) imposed by Muslim governments on their non-Muslim subjects
was increasingly asked.
III – High Rate of BlackAfrican Casualties
• The mutilation of young African boys, sometimes no more than 9 or ten years old, to
• Gordon estimated that only one out of ten boys survived the mutilation operation
• Gordon notes that the typical practice was to conduct a pre-dawn raid on an unsuspecting
• Young women and children were then abducted as the preferred “body” for the raiders
• Young women were targeted because of their value as concubines or sex slaves in
Use ofAfrican Slaves
• The military
• Laboring (hard labor) • Domestic slaves
• Reproduction (Harem) – for Muslim people
• Singer in Palace
• Musicians (pleasure machine)
• Arabs enslaves black people first and on a longer period of time: Islam’s 1400 years
• Result: depreciation of the image ofAfrica andAfricans
• Slavery was still practicing in two Islamic nation: the Sudan and Mauritania
Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade and Colonialism
I- Atlantic triangular slave trade
• Or “Triangular trading system”
• Began around the mid-fifteenth (1440) century when Portuguese interests in
Africa moved away from the fabled deposits of gold to a much more readily
available commodity – slaves.
• By the mid 19 (1850), public opinion turned against slavery
• Between 15-20 millionAfricans sold out ofAfrica
II- Was Slavery New to Africa?
• Africans had been traded as slaves for centuries – reaching Europe via the
Islamic-run; trans-Saharan trade routes.
• ”Domestic” slavery was also a traditional part ofAfrican society – various states
and kingdoms in Africa operated one or more of the following: chattel slavery,
debt bondage, forced labor, and serfdom.
III-Who Started the Triangular Trade?
• In 1481, the Portuguese built their first fort on the Gold Coast, the notorious d’El
Mina • For two hundred years, 1440-1640, Portugal had a monopoly on the export of
• It is estimated that during the 5 centuries of the trans-Atlantic slave trade,
Portugal was responsible for transporting over 4.5 millionAfricans
IV- Trade a Slave with the Pope’s blessing!
• Pope Nicholas V and slavery
• Nicholas issued the bull “Dum Diversas” (June 18, 1452). King Alfonso V was
conferred the right to “attack, conquer, and subjugate Saracens, Pagans, and other
enemies of Christ wherever they may be found.”
• The bull also conferred exclusive trading rights to the Portuguese between
Morocco and the Indies
• Bulls issued by Pope Calixtus III “Inter Caetera quae” (1456),,,,
• The trade was necessary to the success and wealth of Europeans
• If Europeans did not engage in the trade, then others would.
• Africa was already involved in slavery: they states thatAfricans enslaved each other.
• TakingAfricans from their homeland actually benefited them
• “Philosophically,” Blacks were inferior
V- Causes of underdevelopment: The Long-term Damage of Slavery
1- Dramatically slow downAfrica’s population growth
2- African lost human resources through the slave trade
3- The international slave trade had lasting effects upon theAfrican cultural landscape
• TheAtlantic slave trade - created and deepened many ofAfrica’s internal divisions,
planting the seeds of a seemingly permanent mistrust Consequences for LatinAmerica
• Negative legacy for development
• Landowning mentality
• Construction of class
Ex: India (caste system)
I- Africa: The Eve of the Colonial Conquest and Occupation
A- The transition from slave trade to the export of natural products
• The abolition and suppression of that most inhuman of all trading activities and its
replacement by ?
• During that transition, how was the political situation inAfrica?
• 75 years of freedom
What are the consequences?
2- The diminution of the slave trade meant a corresponding cessation wars and raids that
produces the slaves
3- The beginning of the peace and stability in those regions that had been the principal
sources of that inhuman traffic
4- More equitable distribution of wealth, especially in rural area. This new trade obtained
from what has been described as a “gathering-based” economy
5- Wealth was ceasing to be exclusive monopoly of the ruling aristocracy: the beginning of
6- Demographic change
7- Link between the external economy and internal economy: the internal or rural economy
of Congo had become more deeply integrated into the capitalist world-economy
8- The linking of these trading systems had some far-reaching social and economic
consequences a) The new long distance networks unified local trade networks’“vast stretches of
b) This trade let to the evolution of new social patterns as status
c) This trade produced or accelerated the spread of certain lingua francas and cultures
9- The political trends
1) Trend towards greater centralization
B- The background to colonial rule
• Motives ofAfrica exploration?
1- Humanitarian motives
2- Desire of knowledge
3- Desire of curiosity
4- What was the paramount reason for the exploration?
Business (capitalism was at its peak)
II – Colonialism: theAims of European Nations
1. BritishAims inAfrica
a) Britain let the rest of Europe in her industrialization while others had internal
problems to solve.
b) Britain had much surplus capital to invest in various projects
c) Hungry population to export
d) Britain was interested in the abolition of the slave trade
Was Britain more morally conscious of the evils of the trade?
2. FranceAims inAfrica
a) Internal problem
b) No hungry population to export as Britain
c) Her industrial development was still at such an embryonic stage
d) Was not interested in the abolition of the slave trade e) Since 1815 and specifically in 1870 it was an urge among Frenchmen for territorial
3. Contrast and similarity
Contrast: Do you think that Britain and France had any desire to acquire colonies before
Britain: It has been argued that there was a deep-rooted hostility towards the acquisition
of colonies in Britain.
France: It was an urge among Frenchmen for territorial ex