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Lecture 7

Lecture 7 - Third World Politics

6 Pages

Political Science
Course Code
Modeste Mba Talla

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March 6, 2014 The Nature of Third World Politics: Fragmentation, Conflict, Ideologies, and Types of Authority I- Introduction • Were Third World leaders justified in centralizing their states and imposing one- party rule? • Why did local government and independent judiciaries not prosper inAfrica’s centralized states? • Was Third World personal rule an efficient form of government? • To what extent did Clientelism legitimate personal rule in post-colonialAfrica or developing countries? II-Legitimacy: Neo-patrimonialism, personal rule, and centralization ofAfrica states A- Centralization of theAfrican State • Aprocess whereby power is drained form civil society and “peripheral” institution of the state, and concentrated instead within the core executive • No rival source of power o Jacobin method of power distribution o Anglo countries are more federalist (centralized) • Limitations of opportunities for organized opposition • Absence of pluralism • Hegemony of executive B- The One-party state • The vast majority ofAfrican countries andAsian countries underwent a process of centralization, and each leader had their own set of justifications for the constitution amendments deployed • Where formal political mobilization is channeled through a single state- sponsored party • How do you explain this instauration of the one-party state C- The subordination of “peripheral” state institutions to the core executive • Third World executives retained a monopoly over decision-making • Accumulation of power in the executive branch, often in the office of the president or prime minister • Just as parties, legislatures and local government lost power to the executive • With this centralization of power in the hands of the core executive, in many senses, Third World states had reverted to the hierarchical, centralized, and autocratic model of government D- Neo-patrimonialism, personal rule • Neo-patrimonial rule: Where patrimonial rule is exercised through the remnants of legal-rational institutions. • Personal rule:Asystem of government where one individual, commanding the … • State often led by one dominant charismatic individual exercising personal rule • The leader is above the law by personal decree • Treat all political and administrative concerns of state as their own personal affairs • The state is their private property, and the act of ruling is quite arbitrary • Loyalty to the leader brings rewards • Clients are free to exploit their positions of authority, creating their own fiefdoms • Robert Jackson and Carl Rosberg prefer to use “personal rule” • Private interests are pursued within a political structure that has a legal- rational façade • State is the domain of the president-monarch E- The characteristics of personal rule • Third World personal rule can be characterized as authoritarian, arbitrary, ostentatious, and inefficient • This personalized political system has also created administration that is based on factions, rather than institutions and officials working together • Presidential-monarchs linked and their private and public interests, and many sought to display the wealth they had accumulated as a result of high office • Weber: Patrimonial leaders, neo-patrimonial autocrats may also “refuse to be bound by formal rules, even those that they made themselves” • State is the domain of the president-monarch • Personal rule is also arbitrary:Arbitrary rule replaces the rule of law • Factional competition rife within ruling elite • Relies on clientelism to generate legitimacy throughout society • Rules of the game were often changed • No potential challenger is permitted to gain a power base • Withholding of state resources from regions where dissidents drew their support • Protection of their own position and violence F- Clientelism • Alargely instrumental political relationship between individuals of higher socio-economic status (patrons) who use their influence and resources to provide protection or benefits, or both, for a person of lower status (the client) who reciprocates by offering general support and assistance to the patron • Arelation of exchange between unequals • Positions of power within the state and to generate relationships between powerful people and • Chain of patrols and clients – extends deep into society • Generates minimal levels of legitimacy Military intervention in African politics I- Military coups d’état • Acoup d’état involves the sudden, often violent overthrow of an existing government by a small group – in contrast to ‘revolutions’achieved by large numbers of people working f
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