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Lecture 7

Lecture 7 - Third World Politics

6 Pages
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Department
Political Science
Course Code
POL3115
Professor
Modeste Mba Talla

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March 6, 2014
The Nature of Third World Politics: Fragmentation, Conflict, Ideologies, and Types of
Authority
I- Introduction
Were Third World leaders justified in centralizing their states and imposing one-
party rule?
Why did local government and independent judiciaries not prosper in Africa’s
centralized states?
Was Third World personal rule an efficient form of government?
To what extent did Clientelism legitimate personal rule in post-colonial Africa or
developing countries?
II- Legitimacy: Neo-patrimonialism, personal rule, and centralization of Africa states
A- Centralization of the African State
A process whereby power is drained form civil society and “peripheral”
institution of the state, and concentrated instead within the core executive
No rival source of power
oJacobin method of power distribution
oAnglo countries are more federalist (centralized)
Limitations of opportunities for organized opposition
Absence of pluralism
Hegemony of executive
B- The One-party state
The vast majority of African countries and Asian countries underwent a
process of centralization, and each leader had their own set of justifications
for the constitution amendments deployed
Where formal political mobilization is channeled through a single state-
sponsored party
How do you explain this instauration of the one-party state
C- The subordination of “peripheral” state institutions to the core executive
Third World executives retained a monopoly over decision-making
Accumulation of power in the executive branch, often in the office of the
president or prime minister
Just as parties, legislatures and local government lost power to the executive
With this centralization of power in the hands of the core executive, in many
senses, Third World states had reverted to the hierarchical, centralized, and
autocratic model of government
D- Neo-patrimonialism, personal rule
Neo-patrimonial rule: Where patrimonial rule is exercised through the
remnants of legal-rational institutions.
Personal rule: A system of government where one individual, commanding the
State often led by one dominant charismatic individual exercising personal
rule
The leader is above the law by personal decree
Treat all political and administrative concerns of state as their own personal
affairs
The state is their private property, and the act of ruling is quite arbitrary
Loyalty to the leader brings rewards
Clients are free to exploit their positions of authority, creating their own
fiefdoms
Robert Jackson and Carl Rosberg prefer to use “personal rule”

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Description
March 6, 2014 The Nature of Third World Politics: Fragmentation, Conflict, Ideologies, and Types of Authority I- Introduction • Were Third World leaders justified in centralizing their states and imposing one- party rule? • Why did local government and independent judiciaries not prosper inAfrica’s centralized states? • Was Third World personal rule an efficient form of government? • To what extent did Clientelism legitimate personal rule in post-colonialAfrica or developing countries? II-Legitimacy: Neo-patrimonialism, personal rule, and centralization ofAfrica states A- Centralization of theAfrican State • Aprocess whereby power is drained form civil society and “peripheral” institution of the state, and concentrated instead within the core executive • No rival source of power o Jacobin method of power distribution o Anglo countries are more federalist (centralized) • Limitations of opportunities for organized opposition • Absence of pluralism • Hegemony of executive B- The One-party state • The vast majority ofAfrican countries andAsian countries underwent a process of centralization, and each leader had their own set of justifications for the constitution amendments deployed • Where formal political mobilization is channeled through a single state- sponsored party • How do you explain this instauration of the one-party state C- The subordination of “peripheral” state institutions to the core executive • Third World executives retained a monopoly over decision-making • Accumulation of power in the executive branch, often in the office of the president or prime minister • Just as parties, legislatures and local government lost power to the executive • With this centralization of power in the hands of the core executive, in many senses, Third World states had reverted to the hierarchical, centralized, and autocratic model of government D- Neo-patrimonialism, personal rule • Neo-patrimonial rule: Where patrimonial rule is exercised through the remnants of legal-rational institutions. • Personal rule:Asystem of government where one individual, commanding the … • State often led by one dominant charismatic individual exercising personal rule • The leader is above the law by personal decree • Treat all political and administrative concerns of state as their own personal affairs • The state is their private property, and the act of ruling is quite arbitrary • Loyalty to the leader brings rewards • Clients are free to exploit their positions of authority, creating their own fiefdoms • Robert Jackson and Carl Rosberg prefer to use “personal rule” • Private interests are pursued within a political structure that has a legal- rational façade • State is the domain of the president-monarch E- The characteristics of personal rule • Third World personal rule can be characterized as authoritarian, arbitrary, ostentatious, and inefficient • This personalized political system has also created administration that is based on factions, rather than institutions and officials working together • Presidential-monarchs linked and their private and public interests, and many sought to display the wealth they had accumulated as a result of high office • Weber: Patrimonial leaders, neo-patrimonial autocrats may also “refuse to be bound by formal rules, even those that they made themselves” • State is the domain of the president-monarch • Personal rule is also arbitrary:Arbitrary rule replaces the rule of law • Factional competition rife within ruling elite • Relies on clientelism to generate legitimacy throughout society • Rules of the game were often changed • No potential challenger is permitted to gain a power base • Withholding of state resources from regions where dissidents drew their support • Protection of their own position and violence F- Clientelism • Alargely instrumental political relationship between individuals of higher socio-economic status (patrons) who use their influence and resources to provide protection or benefits, or both, for a person of lower status (the client) who reciprocates by offering general support and assistance to the patron • Arelation of exchange between unequals • Positions of power within the state and to generate relationships between powerful people and • Chain of patrols and clients – extends deep into society • Generates minimal levels of legitimacy Military intervention in African politics I- Military coups d’état • Acoup d’état involves the sudden, often violent overthrow of an existing government by a small group – in contrast to ‘revolutions’achieved by large numbers of people working f
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