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Lecture 7

POL 3115 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Mikhail Gorbachev, Ibrahim Babangida, The Breakthrough

6 pages42 viewsWinter 2014

Political Science
Course Code
POL 3115
Modeste Mba Talla

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March 6, 2014
The Nature of Third World Politics: Fragmentation, Conflict, Ideologies, and Types of
I- Introduction
Were Third World leaders justified in centralizing their states and imposing one-
party rule?
Why did local government and independent judiciaries not prosper in Africa’s
centralized states?
Was Third World personal rule an efficient form of government?
To what extent did Clientelism legitimate personal rule in post-colonial Africa or
developing countries?
II- Legitimacy: Neo-patrimonialism, personal rule, and centralization of Africa states
A- Centralization of the African State
A process whereby power is drained form civil society and “peripheral”
institution of the state, and concentrated instead within the core executive
No rival source of power
oJacobin method of power distribution
oAnglo countries are more federalist (centralized)
Limitations of opportunities for organized opposition
Absence of pluralism
Hegemony of executive
B- The One-party state
The vast majority of African countries and Asian countries underwent a
process of centralization, and each leader had their own set of justifications
for the constitution amendments deployed
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Where formal political mobilization is channeled through a single state-
sponsored party
How do you explain this instauration of the one-party state
C- The subordination of “peripheral” state institutions to the core executive
Third World executives retained a monopoly over decision-making
Accumulation of power in the executive branch, often in the office of the
president or prime minister
Just as parties, legislatures and local government lost power to the executive
With this centralization of power in the hands of the core executive, in many
senses, Third World states had reverted to the hierarchical, centralized, and
autocratic model of government
D- Neo-patrimonialism, personal rule
Neo-patrimonial rule: Where patrimonial rule is exercised through the
remnants of legal-rational institutions.
Personal rule: A system of government where one individual, commanding the
State often led by one dominant charismatic individual exercising personal
The leader is above the law by personal decree
Treat all political and administrative concerns of state as their own personal
The state is their private property, and the act of ruling is quite arbitrary
Loyalty to the leader brings rewards
Clients are free to exploit their positions of authority, creating their own
Robert Jackson and Carl Rosberg prefer to use “personal rule”
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