POL3126 Lecture 5: 2015-02-23 - Women, State, & Citizenship.docx

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Department
Political Science
Course Code
POL3126
Professor
Tamara Kotar

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2015-02-23
WOMEN, STATE, & CITIZENSHIP
Women in Parliaments across the Globe
South Africa and the Nordic countries are the only above 40%
Most countries are around 20%
How this affects women’s citizenship
Varying dates on the right to vote across the globe
Western vs. Eastern United States
Quebec 1940
France 1944
Switzerland 1971
Explaining
Human capital model –reasons that women and men bring different natural skills to the
workplace.
Choice model – assumes women just personally choose and gravitate to different
careers. They’ll choose jobs that best-suit their lifestyle.
Patriarchy model – assumes we have a male dominated society. That doesn’t
encourage women to pursue certain types of professions.
Job discrimination in terms of gender (the glass ceiling)
UN Gender Empowerment Index
Women’s resourcing power over financial decision-making in politics and in the economy
What opportunities women have to address inequalities
Great power in Canada and Australia, less in the U.S.
Greater score means greater empowerment of women
UN Gender Inequality Index
2015-02-23
Looks at labor force participation, educational attainment, reproductive health, and
political representation
Greater score mean greater inequality between the genders
UN Gender Equity Index
Higher score means greater equality based on education, economic participation, and
role in political office
Societies with greater equality have greater representation and democratic process
UN Womens Opportunity Index
Access to finance, legal and social status, ability to access the labor market
Societies that promote equality do better economically
Models of Citizenship
Who’s included in terms of gender, ethnic, and religious identity
1. Imperial Model
oStatus conferred on those who are subject to the same ruler
oColonial imperial model – rights are qualified in terms of ethnicity, social and
economic status, region, etc.
oVery qualified, stratified
oHierarchy of nations, peoples, territories
oVery racist
2. Republican Model
oCitizenship is open to all residence
oEqual status applied to everybody as long as they adapt to the national culture
3. Folk/Ethnic Model
oCitizenship derived from blood, not place of birth

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Description
2015-02-23 WOMEN, STATE, & CITIZENSHIP Women in Parliaments across the Globe • South Africa and the Nordic countries are the only above 40% • Most countries are around 20% • How this affects women’s citizenship • Varying dates on the right to vote across the globe • Western vs. Eastern United States • Quebec 1940 • France 1944 • Switzerland 1971 Explaining  Human capital model –reasons that women and men bring different natural skills to the workplace.  Choice model – assumes women just personally choose and gravitate to different careers. They’ll choose jobs that best-suit their lifestyle.  Patriarchy model – assumes we have a male dominated society. That doesn’t encourage women to pursue certain types of professions. • Job discrimination in terms of gender (the glass ceiling) UN Gender Empowerment Index • Women’s resourcing power over financial decision-making in politics and in the economy • What opportunities women have to address inequalities • Great power in Canada and Australia, less in the U.S. • Greater score means greater empowerment of women UN Gender Inequality Index 2015-02-23 • Looks at labor force participation, educational attainment, reproductive health, and political representation • Greater score mean greater inequality between the genders UN Gender Equity Index • Higher score means greater equality based on education, economic participation, and role in political office • Societies with greater equality have greater representation and democratic process UN Women’s Opportunity Index • Access to finance, legal and social status, ability to access the labor market • Societies that promote equality do better economically Models of Citizenship • Who’s included in terms of gender, ethnic, and religious identity 1. Imperial Model o Status conferred on those who are subject to the same ruler o Colonial imperial model – rights are qualified in terms of ethnicity, social and economic status, region, etc. o Very qualified, stratified o Hierarchy of nations, peoples, territories o Very racist 2. Republican Model o Citizenship is open to all residence o Equal status applied to everybody as long as they adapt to the national culture 3. Folk/Ethnic Model o Citizenship derived from blood, not place of birth 2015-02-23 o Old Germany, Switzerland, etc. o Until the 1990s, in Germany, citizenship was conferred by blood 4. Multicultural Model o Values diversity, but there are still some issues o Most value of all model with respect to immigrant cultures Does citizenship impact gender inequality? • Yes – women often don’t have the same access to citizenship as men. Grounded in how the public and private are perceived, and the feminization of private life. T.H. Marshall’s Theory of Citizenship 1. Civil – rights in terms of individual freedoms (freedom of speech, the right to own
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