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Lecture 2

PSY 1101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Atorvastatin


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 1101
Professor
Najwa Haddad
Lecture
2

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Lecture 2
Types of Research Studies
TYPES OF RESEARCH STUDIES
A. Descriptive Research
!A.1 Purpose
o!Observe and describe
o!Don’t do anything, don’t analyze.
!A.2 Case Study
o!Descriptive research
o!Case study – basically researcher is going to study either 1
person or a very small group of people in depth.
o!Researcher looks at every single tail of the subject.
o!Advantages:
!!1. It’s an excellent step when you’re dealing with
something complex or you don’t know much about.
!!2. It allows us to keep a record of cases that are very
rare.
!!3. Gives us a glimpse to human nature and behaviour.
o!Disadvantages:
!!1. The sample is so small you cannot generalize.
!!2. Researcher bias – we may end of hearing information
through our own biases.
"!To avoid this: video tape everything as evidence
for other people to look at the data.
!A.3 Survey
o!A survey can be descriptive and correlational.
o!In a survey a researcher is going to ask questions to a large
sample of people.
o!In order for a survey to be scientific your sample you are
using to ask questions of must be representative of your
population.
o!Population and sample has to be representative otherwise you
cannot generalize your population.
o!A sample is considered to be representative when the sample
of your research closely matches your population.
o!To make sample representative we must do random
sampling.
!!It means chance and only chance will determine who’s
going to end up in your sample.
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!!Random sampling also means every single person in
your population has an equal chance of being included
in your studies.
o!Advantages:
!!1. Easy, cheap and researches 1000s of people
!!2. It allows you to reach the unreachable
"!e.g. people who are homebound.
!!3. Sometimes survey will be the only way to find out
information.
o!Disadvantages:
!!1. No guarantee of truth, some people will lie to you
because they want to appear good or they don’t know
themselves what they are.
!!2. The words you use and the person doing the survey
would influence and affect your research.
"!You change a word, you change the way someone
responds.
!A.4 Naturalistic Observation
o!Occurs when researcher leaves the lab and goes to the real
world, real environment.
o!Advantages:
!!1. You’re away from the superficiality of lab.
!!2. You’re observing behaviour in real time which occur
spontaneously.
!!3. You many notice something now that you may not
find in a lab.
o!Disadvantages:
!!1. Your own presence could affect your results.
"!To avoid this: you must blend in
!!2. Researcher bias
"!To avoid this: more observers or video tape and
record everything.
B. Conventional Research
!B.1 Purpose
o!Correlational research – we are looking to see if there’s
systematic and reliable relationship between two or more
variables.
o!Looking for a relationship.
!B.2 Do they co-vary?
o!If one variable changes doesn’t the other one change too.
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