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Lecture 10

PSY 1101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Subjective Constancy, Critical Period, Relative Luminance

Course Code
PSY 1101
Najwa Haddad

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Lecture 10
Organization and Interpretation
!Gestalt Psychology
o!School of psychology in Germany in early 20th century.
o!Devoted their energy to find out how brain organizes
information and makes sense of it.
o!It doesn’t exist anything.
o!Gestalt = form or unified whole
o!Brain organizes information in a gestalt form.
o!The whole may exceed the sum of its parts
o!You’re seeing the world as your brain wants you to see it.
o!Brain matters, mind matters – the perceiving brain.
A. Form and shape
!A.1 Figure and ground
o!The brain automatically divides something to figure and
o!Focusing attention on the figure and the ground is the
o!Figure and ground continuously reverse.
o!Figure and ground is not a property of the physical world,
your brain creates it otherwise you will see a blend of
o!1 stimulus and 2 different perceptions depending on what you
consider figure and ground.
!A.2 Grouping
!!Elements in a visual scene that are physically close to
each other will be considered as a single unit.
!!Elements in a scene that are physically similar to each
other are perceived as a unit.
!!Elements in a scene that continues or follows a pattern
are perceived as a single unit.
!!Elements in a scene that are physically connected to
one another are seen as a single unit.
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!!Your brain fills in the blanks.
B. Depth Perception
!Our ability to perceive how far or close an object is.
!Depth perception is party innate (inborn).
o!Can be proven by visual cliff experiment.
!Experience is a must for proper development of depth perception.
!Your brain replies to 2 different types of cues to perceive depth:
o!B.1 Binocular depth cues
!!You need both of your eyes together for binocular cues
to work:
!!1) convergence
"!Extend to which your eye muscles are going to
rotate your eyes in order to look at an object.
"!Bigger the rotation, the closer the object is
perceived to be.
"!Smaller the rotation, the further the object is
perceived to be.
!!2) Retinal disparity
"!Both eyes are at a distance from each other.
"!Because of this distance, they get slightly
different images on their retinas.
"!The bigger the retinal disparity, the bigger the
object is perceived to be.
"!The smaller the retinal disparity, the smaller the
object is perceived to be.
o!B.2 Monocular depth cues
!!1 eye is enough for monocular depth cues
!!Relative size
"!We perceive objects higher in our field of vision as
farther away.
"!Because we assume the lower parts of the figure-
ground illustration is closer, we perceive it as
"!A scene of object is blocking another object.
"!The object blocking is closer, then the object
being blocked appears to be further away.
!!Relative clarity
"!Objects that appear clearer, sharper, crisper will
appear to be closer.
!!Texture gradient
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