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Lecture

Neurosciences- Anatomy and functions of the nervous system.docx

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY1101
Professor
Kenneth Campbell

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Psychology Lecture 6 9/25/2012 7:43:00 AM
Orientation
Medial-lateral
Slices
Horizontal
Coronal
Sagittal
Imaging Techniques
Anatomical techniques
o Slicing the human brain.
o Viewing macrostructures with the human eye or
microstructures with a microscope.
o Appropriate for cadavers.
MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Advantage: Provides high resolution images of the human brain.
Problems:
o Static. Provides an image of the structure but does not
indicate the function of the structure.
o Resolution is limited (cannot see single cells)
o Very expensive
Functional Techniques (observing the active brain)
What areas of the brains are responsible for different animal and
human functions?
In the clinical setting: Observe functions lost because of brain injury
(trauma, stroke, tumours, etc).
Problem: human brain injures are often widespread and not higly
specific.
In the experimental setting: Lesion a specific part of animal brains
to determine its function.
Stimulate a specific area of the brain to observe the function it
controls.
Problems: in many cases, it is difficult to know just what an animal
is experiencing.
Higher mental states may well differ across species. How applicable
are these studies to humans?
PET (Positron Emission Tomography)
Advantage: provides an image of the function of various structures
of the brain. Indicates which areas are active (and require glucose)
for a task to be completed.
Disadvantage:
o Invasive. Requires deoxyglucose to be injected into the blood.
o Very slow. Blood circulates slowly. The brain makes rapid
decisions. The PET provides an image of all the brain areas
that were active within the last 1-2 minutes
o Expensive
fMRI (functional MRI)
Advantages:
o Provides an image of the function of various structures of the
brain. Indicates which areas are active (and require glucose)
for a task to be completed.
o High resolution image of brain structures (unlike PET)
Disadvantages:
o Slow. Can be fast as 200-500 ms to obtain image, but the
brain makes decisions much more rapidly than this.
o Expemsive.
EEG/Evoked Potentials
Electrodes attached to the scalp. Provides an indication of the
electrical activity of the brain.
When a stimulus is presented, the changes in electrical activity (the
evoked potentials) can be measured.
Advantages:
o rapid processing in the brain can be determined every 1ms.
o Very inexpensive
Disadvantages:
o Poor spatial resolution. Electrical activity from the scalp
provides a poor indication of the actual underlying structures
of the brain.
o

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Description
Psychology Lecture 6 9/25/2012 7:43:00 AM Orientation  Medial-lateral Slices  Horizontal  Coronal  Sagittal Imaging Techniques  Anatomical techniques o Slicing the human brain. o Viewing macrostructures with the human eye or microstructures with a microscope. o Appropriate for cadavers. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)  Advantage: Provides high resolution images of the human brain.  Problems: o Static. Provides an image of the structure but does not indicate the function of the structure. o Resolution is limited (cannot see single cells) o Very expensive Functional Techniques (observing the active brain)  What areas of the brains are responsible for different animal and human functions?  In the clinical setting: Observe functions lost because of brain injury (trauma, stroke, tumours, etc).  Problem: human brain injures are often widespread and not higly specific.  In the experimental setting: Lesion a specific part of animal brains to determine its function.  Stimulate a specific area of the brain to observe the function it controls.  Problems: in many cases, it is difficult to know just what an animal is experiencing.  Higher mental states may well differ across species. How applicable are these studies to humans? PET (Positron Emission Tomography)  Advantage: provides an image of the function of various
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