PSY1101 Lecture 7: Chapter 11 Motivation, Hunger, Sex

33 views12 pages
27 Jul 2016
Department
Course
Professor
Wednesday, July 6, 2016
Chapter 11
Motivation, Hunger, Sex
-Motivation - need or desire that energizes and directs behaviour, reason for acting
-Motivation isn’t positive or negative, it’s a mover
-All motivations have these characteristics:
Activation - initiation or production of behaviour
Persistence - continued efforts or determination to achieve a goal
Intensity - greater visor in responding, often accompanying motivated behaviour
-4 Complimentary Theories of Motivation
Instinct and Evolutionary Theories
Drive and Incentive Theories
Arousal Theories
Hierarchy of needs
-1. Instinct Theories and Evolutionary Explanations
-Instinct - a complex behaviour that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is
unearned
-Based on the Darwinian theory - random variation, followed by selection
-Key concepts of evolution: More offspring are produced than can possibly survive,
traits vary among individuals, leading to different rates of survival and reproduction for
offspring, and trait differences are heritable.
-Instinct must:
Be automatic
Be irresistible
Occur at some point in development
Be triggered by some event tin the environment
Occur in every member of the species
!1
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 12 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Wednesday, July 6, 2016
Be unmodifiable
Govern behaviour for which the organism needs no training
-Not just a reflex reaction, an instinct can be very complex - bird nests, spider webs,
ant rafts
-Instinct Theory - Certain human behaviours are innate and due to evolutionary
programming.
-Problems:
-1. Many human behaviours (and many animal ones) are in fact learned anew by each
generation, not just instinctual/transmitted genetically
-2. Instinct eventually used as the explanation of almost all human behaviours (e.g
“instinct” to wear ornate jewelry). A list of thousands of “instincts” made theory useless
in predicting actual behaviours
-2. Drive and Incentive Theories a.k.a drive reduction theories - Need for
homeostasis.
-Homeostasis - the tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state
-Incentives - positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behaviour
-PUSH to reduce drives - to get back to a steady physiological state
-PULL from incentives, e.g reinforcers
-When drives (push) and incentives (pull) are in the same direction, motivation is
strong. e.g hungry + smell of fries = more motivation
-When drives and incentives are in conflict, motivation is weaker. e.g thirsty, grizzly
bear at creek = less motivation
-Problem:
-Theories assume that we’re driven to a steady and balanced state (homeostasis) but
often we deliberately seek arousal (increased heart rate etc), so we don’t always look
for a homeostasis (steady state)
-3. Arousal Theories - Similar to homeostatic theory, but with our desired level of
arousal constantly changing with circumstances / environment
-Arousal theory - view that people are motivated to maintain a level of arousal that is
optimal - neither too high nor too low - but can also vary over time.
!2
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 12 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Wednesday, July 6, 2016
-Low arousal = boredom = motivation for stimulating
-High arousal = overstimulation = motivation for calm.
-Helps account for:
Large individual differences in what is high or low between individuals (ADD)
Differences in individuals over time - generally when we’re younger we seek
arousal more
Differences depending on drugs we’re taking, or what we are doing, desired
arousal state will change over time
-Arousal theories provide better explanation of why there are ‘sensation seekers’, and
why we seem to have curiousity
-Problem:
-Arousal theory seems very mechanistic, as if we are just at the mercy of our
hormones and our nervous systems. Where is our humanity?
-4. Humanistic Theories
-Underlying concept - We don’t act just on uncontrollable, unconscious desires. Not
just instinct, external rewards, reinforcement, and arousal, but also internal needs and
motivations
-Hierarchy of Needs - Maslow’s Pyramid: Pyramid of human needs that must first be
satisfied before higher-level needs and then psychological needs become active
-(Most to least important): Psychological needs, safety needs, belongingness and love
needs, esteem needs, self-actualization needs, self-transcendence needs (finding
meaning beyond the self)
-Not strictly a hierarchy, but still useful framework
-Self-Determination Theory: Variation of Maslow’s Hierarchy
-Optimal human functioning can occur only if psychological needs for autonomy,
competence, relatedness are satisfied. These three needs must be satisfied for
psychological growth and success.
!3
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 12 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class
Class+
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
30 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class