PSY 1102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 17: Learned Helplessness, Behavioral Neuroscience, Determinism
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Tuesday, October 29th 2019
SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY
Recap from Last Class:
• Personality is complex as a characteristic.
• There is no right answer regarding what personality is.
Social Cognitive Perspective
• Created by Bandura in the 1980s
• Key thing to remember is that it looks at “SITUATIONAL” factors in the context of effects.
• It takes a look at learned behaviours.
1. We learn behaviours by observing other individuals.
2. How we react to the situation.
• As we previously learned, we cannot observe a motivation, so we take a look at the
INFERENCE of the motivation instead.
Behaviourist looks at the stimulus and the response. Thus, created by Watson and Skinner
insists that we are a black box that processes a stimulus and gives a response. Cognitive is
irrelevant to this perspective.
→ In contrast, cognitive theory takes into consideration the thinking of organisms is not simply
through the environment but our response to the environment is modulated from what goes on
around us (e.g. memories, emotions, schemas).
• Reciprocal Determinism: we are definitely influenced by our environment and we also
help create the environment. E.g. on slide 20.
• Moreover, individuals who have anxiety may perceive the world as threatening (p. 536).
• Take a look at the diagram on slide 24 for more details regarding biopsychology and the
Locus of Control
• Personal: you are in control of your life.
• Locus: you are a little more confident, more control of your environment than being
controlled by it instead.
• External: outside forces control what occurs to them.
• Self-Control: control impulses and delay gratification. (Marshmallow test).
• Learned helplessness: generally most associated with external control. View examples
on slide 28.
• Optimism and pessimism
• Excessive optimism can be dangerous and counterproductive. To avoid being so,
get input from other people to help balance these matters.