PSY1102 Lecture 7: Chapter 16 Therapy

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27 Jul 2016
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Wednesday, July 20, 2016
Chapter 16 Therapy
-2 Main Categories of Therapy:
-1. Psychotherapy - Psychologists
Hundreds of variations, all derived from main perspectives of psychology
Involves interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to
overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth
Treatment involving psychological techniques (based on the major perspectives in
psychology
Psychoanalytic/psychodynamic, humanistic, behavioural, cognitive, eclectic
approach (techniques from all different perspectives)
-2. Biomedical Therapy - Psychiatrists
Prescribed medications or procedures that act directly on the person’s physiology
Drug therapies, brain stimulation (ECT, rTMS), psychosurgery
-Classic Psychoanalysis (Freud)
-First and only (at the time) psychotherapy
-The problems of today are the result of unconscious repressed impulses, conflicts,
and memories from childhood, id, ego, superego imbalances
Forcibly repressed because they cause anxiety, (their attempted expression causes
anxiety, depression, disorders)
Bring impulses, conflicts, memories to consciousness to deal with them
-People don’t know themselves
Unaware of their unconscious
Psychoanalysis reveals these unconscious issues - provides insight to the person
-Techniques
Dream analysis - Interpret the latent content from the manifest content (dreams
express what is going on in your unconscious mind in a disguised way) - manifest
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Wednesday, July 20, 2016
is remembered, which is disguised version of latent content - what it represents
(urges) - 0 scientific evidence of relation between dreams and conflict
Free association - Relax on a couch with therapist behind you, say aloud whatever
comes to your mind, as freely as possible: - shut off ego
-Things that ego tries to do that get analyzed -
-Resistance - the blocking from consciousness of anxiety laden material, editing
out details that may be embarrassing, pausing before revealing something
sensitive, making jokes, changing the subject - Therapist interprets the meaning
of your resistance
-Transference - the patient’s transfer to the analyst of emotions inked with other
relationships such as love or hatred of a parent. over time, person will start to
experience these feelings toward the analyst - transferring feelings from past
relationship to therapist. Therapist interprets these feelings to help identify the
past anxiety laden relationship
Interpretation - The analyst’s noting supposed resistances, dream meanings, and
other significant behaviours and events in order to promote insight. Present
behaviour (typically revolving around relationships - defensiveness, dependance,
withdrawal, aggression/dominance)
-Modern Psychoanalysis: Psychodynamic Therapy
-Same basic premise of unresolved conflicts from the past - childhood still important
-But don’t talk about id, ego, superego, psychosexual stages
-Mostly about relationship problems or traumatic incidents
-Goal is to give insight into unconscious processing - make them aware of their
unconscious wishes, thoughts, feelings, motivations, how these impact relationships,
insight into how past relationships affect current relationships
-Meet face to face, not classic out of view couch setting
-Less directive - won’t be told what to talk about (client driven)
-Fewer sessions
-Interpersonal Psychotherapy
Brief 12-16 session psychodynamic therapy
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Uncover the root of the problem - past relationships
But focus on present problems and offer insight into expressing emotions,
improving relationships, and balancing the demands of life
-Humanistic Therapy: An Insight Therapy like Psychodynamic Therapy (Maslow)
-Provide insight into what is causing problems
-Like psychoanalysis, people don’t really know themselves BUT the self-actualized
person is self aware.
-People are striving for growth (goal: self-actualization - know who they are, reaching
full potential)
inner conflict between one’s sense of self and the expectations of others
(conditions of worth)
-Attempt to increase self-awareness and encourage self-acceptance
Differences from psychoanalysis:
conscious thoughts more important
present and future more important than the past
take responsibility for one’s feelings and actions - free will
promote personal growth, not curing illness (clients/persons vs. patients)
-Carl Rogers: Client-Centred Therapy
Focuses on a person’s conscious self-perceptions
Goal is to reflect these back to the person so they may gain insight into their
problems and grow
Non-directive - every person is born with the resources for growth towards self-
fulfillment/personal growth, all they need is the right environment
Active Listening - paraphrase in your perspective, invite clarification, reflect feelings
Development requires a growth promoting environment -
-Genuineness - engenders trust
-Acceptance - provide unconditional positive regard, relief from judgement
-Empathy - really listening - makes one feel understood
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