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Lecture 3

PSY 2301 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Axon Hillock, Neuroglia, Peripheral Nervous System

Course Code
PSY 2301
Andra Smith

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Chp 3
Wednesday, September 21, 2016
8:29 AM
What are the units of nervous system function
Cells of the nervous system
o Golgi
Interconnected fibres
o Cajal
Discovered discrete cells
Neuron hypothesis
Neurons are actually the units of brain function
Clearly work together
o Brainbow
Stain individual neurons and see where they project and where they connect
and what they communicate with
o Three basic subdivisions
Gather info from neurons
Branches that come out and take in info from neighbouring neurons
Cell body/soma
Core region
Contains nucleus
"Brains of neuron"
Make decision if neuron should fire
Relays information cell to cell
Communicates with other neurons
o Neurons
functional units
Neurons shape behavior and vice versa
"Use it or lose it"
Grow and shrink dendrite connections
In your hippocampus and olfactory area new neurons can be generated
Usually increase the connection - more dendrites
o Glial Cells
Help neurons
Basic structure and function
o Dendrite spines
Take in information from other neurons
The more you have (surface area) more potential communication
Goes into soma (decides to fire or not)
Then the action potential starts at the axon hillock
o Axon hillock
Juncture of soma and axon where axon stars
o Axon collaterals
Branch of an axon
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o End foot
Terminal button - neurotransmitter is released, neighboring neurons pick up
info here
o Synapse
Space between one neuron and another
Usually between end foot of the axon and dendrite spine of another neuron
o Info flow
Dendrite -> Cell body - > Axon Hillock -> Axon -> End Foot
Different types
o Sensory
Bring in info to the cns
Most simplistic
In the Retina
o Interneurons
Associate sensory and motor activity within the cns
More complex
Takes in much more info
Cells in the thalamus
"relay centre" there fore many dendrites
o Motor neurons
Send signals from the Brain and spinal cord to muscles
Efferent information
Lots of dendrites
Really long axon from your brain to spinal cords
I.e needs to be very Long
Excitation and inhibition
o Glial cells
5 different types ** KNOW THE CELLS AND FUNCTION
Ependymal cells
In the ventricles
Makes and secrete CSF
Increase in pressure
Blockage the CSF doesn't have anywhere to go so the
lateral ventricles start to expand
Usually near the 4 ventricles
Stuctural support
Main function is to help with the talk communication with brain
and blood vessels
Increase activity = increase glucose = increase in blood flow
Help make blood brain barrier - that protects from unwanted
Made up of tight junctions blood vessels + astrocytes
Help with formation of scar tissue
When there is damage the astrocytes help form
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