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Lecture 19

PSY2301 Lecture 19: Psychopathy

6 pages53 viewsFall 2016

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 2301
Professor
Andra Smith
Lecture
19

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Psychopaths*perform**>50%*of*violent*crime
Psychopaths*recidivate*3-4x*more*than*non-psychopaths*following*release*from*
prison
"successful"*psychopaths*use*the*system*and*people*to*get*what*they*want
Effect*on*Other's*Treatment
Psychopaths*have*been*shown*to*be*more*destructive*after*treatment
Psychopaths*take*over*and*disturb*treatment*groups
Some*prisons*don't*allow*psychopaths*in*their*groups
Psychopathy
Affectively:*labile*emotions,*no*long*lasting*bonds*to*people*or*principles*or*goal,*
lack*of*empathy*or*guilt
Behaviourally:*impulsive,*sensation-seeking,*violate*social*norms
Hare*Psychopathy*Checklist*-Revised*(PCL-R)
Uses:*Assessing*and*diagnosing*psychopathy*for*research*and*clinical*purposes
Parole*board*hearings/*dangerous*offender*verdicts
Best*predictive*tool*for*recidivism/*risk*assessment
The*Checklist:*20*characteristics
Semi-structured*interview*and*collateral*information
Childhood,*relationships,*work*experience,*family*history,*criminal*history,*
general*view*of*life*and*people
PCL-R*Items
Background
Pseudopsychopath:*describes*the*personalities*of*a*subset*of*frontal*lobe*
patients*who*lacked*adult*tact*and*restraint.*In*contrast*to*conventional,*or*
developmental,*psychopathy,*in*which*psychopathic*traits*emerge*in*childhood*
and*adolescence*with*no*gross*structural*brain*lesion,*pseudopsychopathic*
behaviors*arise*following*brain*injury
1)
Acquired1Psychopaths:11psychopathy*can*be*acquired*through*brain*injury*and*
nearly*always*presents*with*other*obvious*signs*of*brain*damage.*Some*drug*use*
is*also*associated*with*desensitisation*and*detachment*that*leads*to*the*triggers*
for*secondary*psychopathy
*Primary*psychopathy*is*inherent*from*birth,*while*secondary*psychopathy*is*
acquired*through*adverse*reactions*to*their*environment*and*or*identification*
with*a*subculture*that*teaches*and*reinforces*the*hallmarks*of*psychopathy.
Poor*executive*functioning*in*psychopaths2)
EEG,*SPECT*studies*of*Violent*Offenders*and*Psychopathy3)
fMRI*studies4)
Psychopathy*&*Affect
Language
They*know*the*words*but*not*the*music
Their*understanding*is*only*word*deep
The*know*only*the*dictionary*meaning*of*words
They*can*learn*to*use*ordinary*words,*and*to*reproduce*the*pantomime*of*
feeling,*but*the*feeling*itself*does*not*come*to*pass
Neurobiology*of*Psychopathy
The*Lexical* Decision*Task:*a*powerful*technique*for*investigation*of*the*semantic*
and*affective*components*of*language
Words*have*both*denotative*(explicit,*literal)*and*connotative*(implicit,*implied)*
meanings
The*impact*of*affective*connotations*of*words*can*be*evaluated*by*recording:
Lexical* decision*times
Brain*activity*associated*with*the*decisions
Neutral*and*emotional*words,*and*pronounceable*nonwords,*briefly*presented*in*
random*order*on*a*computer*screen
Ex.*RAPE,*EPRA*******TREE,*ETER
Was*what*you*saw*a*word?
SPECT
Intrator*et*al.,*(1997)*SPECT*study*of*emotional*lexical*decision*task
Less*anterior*cortical*activation*in*psychopaths*than*in*nonpsychopaths
Less*widespread*activation*in*psychopaths*than*in*nonpsychopaths
fMRI*in*Psychopaths
Go/*No*Go*test*of*response*inhibition
Emotional*Word*Task*of*emotional*processing
Role*of*the*Prefronal*Cortex
Psychopathy*-Disinhibition
Conclusions
Inefficient*neural*communication*and*integration*between*dorsolateral*PFC,*OFC*
and*limbic*structures*may*explain*the*deficits*in*executive* functioning*observed*
in*psychopaths
This*impact*may*not*be*observed*during*standard*IQ*or*neuropsychological*tests*
because*psychopaths*have*adapted*to*use*neural*systems*that*play*a*
compensatory*role
However,*when*put*into*many*real*life*situations*these*results*suggest*a*
neurobiological*basis*for*psychopaths'*faulty*emotional*and*inhibitory*processes*
that*makes*the*emotional*brakes*on*behaviour*(conscience)*weak,*enabling*
psychopaths*to*engage*in*predatory,*violent*acts*without*regret
Summary*of*Results
Psychopaths* showed* no*
significant*dorsolateral*
prefrontal*cortex*activation*
during*response* inhibition
Psychopaths* showed*
reduced*activation*of*several*
limbic*structures*while*
viewing*emotional*words*
and*increased*activation*of*
the*anterior*temporal*lobe*
when*compared*with*
noncriminal* individuals
Conclusions
First*fMRI*study* of*well-
defined* psychopaths*
showing
significant*neural*differences*
between*psychopaths* and*
control*subjects* in*
dorsolateral*prefrontal*
cortex*during*
response* inhibition* and*
limbic*structures*during*
emotional*
processing.*
Combined* with*the*
Neuroanatomy*of*prefrontal*
cortex*
and*its*connections*
Psychopathy
Tuesday,* November* 22,*2016
7:24*PM

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Psychopaths*perform**>50%*of*violent*crime
Psychopaths*recidivate*3-4x*more*than*non-psychopaths*following*release*from*
prison
"successful"*psychopaths*use*the*system*and*people*to*get*what*they*want
Effect*on*Other's*Treatment
Psychopaths*have*been*shown*to*be*more*destructive*after*treatment
Psychopaths*take*over*and*disturb*treatment*groups
Some*prisons*don't*allow*psychopaths*in*their*groups
Psychopathy
Interpersonally:*egocentric,*manipulative,*dominant,*cold-hearted
Affectively:*labile*emotions,*no*long*lasting*bonds*to*people*or*principles*or*goal,*
lack*of*empathy*or*guilt
Behaviourally:*impulsive,*sensation-seeking,*violate*social*norms
Hare*Psychopathy*Checklist*-Revised*(PCL-R)
Uses:*Assessing*and*diagnosing*psychopathy*for*research*and*clinical*purposes
Parole*board*hearings/*dangerous*offender*verdicts
Best*predictive*tool*for*recidivism/*risk*assessment
The*Checklist:*20*characteristics
Semi-structured*interview*and*collateral*information
Childhood,*relationships,*work*experience,*family*history,*criminal*history,*
general*view*of*life*and*people
PCL-R*Items
Background
Pseudopsychopath:*describes*the*personalities*of*a*subset*of*frontal*lobe*
patients*who*lacked*adult*tact*and*restraint.*In*contrast*to*conventional,*or*
developmental,*psychopathy,*in*which*psychopathic*traits*emerge*in*childhood*
and*adolescence*with*no*gross*structural*brain*lesion,*pseudopsychopathic*
behaviors*arise*following*brain*injury
1)
Acquired1Psychopaths:11psychopathy*can*be*acquired*through*brain*injury*and*
nearly*always*presents*with*other*obvious*signs*of*brain*damage.*Some*drug*use*
is*also*associated*with*desensitisation*and*detachment*that*leads*to*the*triggers*
for*secondary*psychopathy
*Primary*psychopathy*is*inherent*from*birth,*while*secondary*psychopathy*is*
acquired*through*adverse*reactions*to*their*environment*and*or*identification*
with*a*subculture*that*teaches*and*reinforces*the*hallmarks*of*psychopathy.
Poor*executive*functioning*in*psychopaths
2)
EEG,*SPECT*studies*of*Violent*Offenders*and*Psychopathy
3)
fMRI*studies
4)
Psychopathy*&*Affect
Language
They*know*the*words*but*not*the*music
Their*understanding*is*only*word*deep
The*know*only*the*dictionary*meaning*of*words
They*can*learn*to*use*ordinary*words,*and*to*reproduce*the*pantomime*of*
feeling,*but*the*feeling*itself*does*not*come*to*pass
Neurobiology*of*Psychopathy
The*Lexical* Decision*Task:*a*powerful*technique*for*investigation*of*the*semantic*
and*affective*components*of*language
Words*have*both*denotative*(explicit,*literal)*and*connotative*(implicit,*implied)*
meanings
The*impact*of*affective*connotations*of*words*can*be*evaluated*by*recording:
Lexical* decision*times
Brain*activity*associated*with*the*decisions
Neutral*and*emotional*words,*and*pronounceable*nonwords,*briefly*presented*in*
random*order*on*a*computer*screen
Ex.*RAPE,*EPRA*******TREE,*ETER
Was*what*you*saw*a*word?
SPECT
Intrator*et*al.,*(1997)*SPECT*study*of*emotional*lexical*decision*task
Less*anterior*cortical*activation*in*psychopaths*than*in*nonpsychopaths
Less*widespread*activation*in*psychopaths*than*in*nonpsychopaths
fMRI*in*Psychopaths
Go/*No*Go*test*of*response*inhibition
Emotional*Word*Task*of*emotional*processing
Role*of*the*Prefronal*Cortex
Psychopathy*-Disinhibition
Conclusions
Inefficient*neural*communication*and*integration*between*dorsolateral*PFC,*OFC*
and*limbic*structures*may*explain*the*deficits*in*executive* functioning*observed*
in*psychopaths
This*impact*may*not*be*observed*during*standard*IQ*or*neuropsychological*tests*
because*psychopaths*have*adapted*to*use*neural*systems*that*play*a*
compensatory*role
However,*when*put*into*many*real*life*situations*these*results*suggest*a*
neurobiological*basis*for*psychopaths'*faulty*emotional*and*inhibitory*processes*
that*makes*the*emotional*brakes*on*behaviour*(conscience)*weak,*enabling*
psychopaths*to*engage*in*predatory,*violent*acts*without*regret
Summary*of*Results
Psychopaths* showed* no*
significant*dorsolateral*
prefrontal*cortex*activation*
during*response* inhibition
Psychopaths* showed*
reduced*activation*of*several*
limbic*structures*while*
viewing*emotional*words*
and*increased*activation*of*
the*anterior*temporal*lobe*
when*compared*with*
noncriminal* individuals
Conclusions
First*fMRI*study* of*well-
defined* psychopaths*
showing
significant*neural*differences*
between*psychopaths* and*
control*subjects* in*
dorsolateral*prefrontal*
cortex*during*
response* inhibition* and*
limbic*structures*during*
emotional*
processing.*
Combined* with*the*
Neuroanatomy*of*prefrontal*
cortex*
and*its*connections*
Psychopathy
Tuesday,* November* 22,*2016 7:24*PM
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