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Lecture 13

PSY2301 Lecture 13: PSY 2301 - Mar 02 - Psychopathology
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10 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY2301
Professor
Patrick Davidson

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How do Drugs and Hormones Influence the Brain and Behaviour?
Outline:
- Principles of Psychopharmacology
- Mental Illness and Psychoactive Drugs
Principles of Psychopharmacology
- Drugs Routes into the Nervous System
- Routes of Drug Administration
- Oral
- Safest, easiest, and most common route
- But also most complex
- More barriers that drugs must cross to have its
desired effect
- Inhalation or injection
- Produces faster, more reliable, effects
- Fewer barriers for drugs to pass through
- Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB)
- Helps prevent most substances, including drugs, from entering the
brain via the bloodstream
- Endothelial cells in capillaries located throughout the body are not
tightly joined, so it is easy for substances to move into and out of
the bloodstream itself.
- In contrast, endothelial cells in the brain are tightly joined and the
presence of astrocytes help keep most substances out
- Barrier-Free Brin Sites
- Places that are easier to cross the BBB for drugs etc…
- Drug Routes into the Nervous System
- Small, uncharged molecules (e.g., oxygen and carbon dioxide) are fat
soluble and can freely cross the BBB
- Larger, charged molecules (e.g., glucose, amino acids, fats) must be
actively transported across the BBB
- Difficulty developing drugs for the brain
- They must be small and uncharged or they must be structurally
similar to a substance that already has an active transporter that
allows it passage into the BBB
- Drug Action at Synapses
- Most psychoactive drugs exert their effects by influencing chemical
reaction at synapses
- Agonist
- Substance that ENHANCES the function of a synapse
- Antagonist
- Substance that BLOCKS the function of a synapse
- Both agonists and antagonists can help you or kill
you, depends on the substances
- Drugs can alter chemical processes at any of the seven major stages of
synaptic transmission
- Agonistic OR antagonistic
- Either can be good or bad
An Acetylcholine Synapse: Example of Drug Action

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Description
How do Drugs and Hormones Influence the Brain and Behaviour? Outline: Principles of Psychopharmacology Mental Illness and Psychoactive Drugs Principles of Psychopharmacology Drugs Routes into the Nervous System Routes of Drug Administration Oral Safest, easiest, and most common route But also most complex More barriers that drugs must cross to have its desired effect Inhalation or injection Produces faster, more reliable, effects Fewer barriers for drugs to pass through BloodBrain Barrier (BBB) Helps prevent most substances, including drugs, from entering the brain via the bloodstream Endothelial cells in capillaries located throughout the body are not tightly joined, so it is easy for substances to move into and out of the bloodstream itself. In contrast, endothelial cells in the brain are tightly joined and the presence of astrocytes help keep most substances out BarrierFree Brin Sites Places that are easier to cross the BBB for drugs etc
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